Wayne Newhauser, Ph. D.

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Radiation Protection: Are We Doing Enough to Protect our Patients and Staff ? Proton Beam Therapy: Lecture #4. Wayne Newhauser, Ph. D. Univ Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25, Houston. Objectives – Lecture 4. Review the basics of radiation protection
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Radiation Protection: Are We Doing Enough to Protect our Patients and Staff ?Proton Beam Therapy: Lecture #4Wayne Newhauser, Ph. D.Univ Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer CenterProton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25, HoustonObjectives – Lecture 4
  • Review the basics of radiation protection
  • Guiding principles
  • Methods of calculation and measurement
  • Examples
  • Review shielding of the equipment rooms
  • Review shielding of the treatment head
  • Discussexposures to the patient to stray radiation
  • Provide conceptual framework and methods to address the question: Are we doing enough?
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Review: Deterministic Effects
  • Nature of Deterministic Effects
  • Effect increases in severity with increasing dose above a threshold
  • Effect usually occurs after large doses
  • Effects may occur within hours or days, or months or years after exposure
  • Examples
  • Skin damage
  • Lens opacification
  • Fibrosis
  • Sterility or reduction in fertility
  • After NCRP Report 116, 1993W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Review: Stochastic Effects
  • Probability of the effect occurring is defined as one in which the probability of the effect occurring increases continuously with increasing absorbed dose
  • Severity of effect in an individual is independent of absorbed dose
  • “All or nothing” effect
  • Principal effect after exposure to low doses
  • Examples
  • Cancer
  • Genetic effects
  • After NCRP Report 116, 1993W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Goals of Radiation Protection
  • Prevent occurrence of serious radiation-induced conditions in exposed persons. These include acute and chronic deterministic effects.
  • Reduce stochastic effects in exposed persons to a degree that is acceptable in relation to the benefits to the individual and society from the activities that generate such exposure.
  • After NCRP Report 116, 1993W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Specific Objectives
  • To prevent the occurrence of clinical significant radiation induced deterministic effects by adhering to dose limits that are below the apparent threshold levels.
  • To limit the risk of stochastic effects, cancer and genetic effects, to a reasonable level in relation to societal needs, values, benefits gained and economic factors.
  • After NCRP Report 116, 1993W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Methods
  • Radiation safety training
  • Time, distance, shielding
  • Administrative controls on use, occupancy
  • Interlocks, annunciators, and other safety systems
  • Radiation survey measurements
  • Area monitoring of radiation levels (independent from treatment control system)
  • Personnel dosimetry
  • Oversight by radiation safety committee
  • As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
  • An so on …
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 For Context:A Breakdown of “Average” Exposure Natural background ~82% (from BEIR VII 2006)Total is about 3.6 mSv/y (360 mrem/y) from NCRP 93.W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Radiation Should be a Safe Industry.Risk of Fatal Ca Should ~10-4/yor lessFrom NCRP Report 116, 1993W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Formalism to Compute Risk
  • Effective dose
  • Sums over all tissues and organs (T)
  • wT is the tissue weighting factor
  • Equivalent dose
  • Sums over all radiation (R) types
  • wR is the radiation weighting factor
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Formalism to Compute Risk
  • Absorbed dose in organ or tissue T of mass m
  • What is interesting about DT?
  • Purely physics, does not take into account any biology
  • Measurable and calculable
  • See Homework Problem 4.1W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Formalism to Compute Risk
  • Radiation weighting factor wR (~RBE)
  • For neutrons as a function of neutron energy
  • What is interesting about wR?
  • Takes into account biology, not physics
  • Not directly measurable or calculable
  • Values represent a useful approximation, not an exact relation
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Tissue Weighting FactorsFrom ICRP Publication 60 (1990)W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Radiation Weighting FactorsICRP Publication 92 (2003) W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Neutron Radiation Weighting FactorICRP Publication 92 (2003) W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Historical Neutron Radiation Weighting FactorsICRP Publication 92 (2003) W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Where Do wR and wT Come From?
  • An end user should use recommended values
  • For regulatory compliance, values generally taken from state regulations.
  • For research, values typically taken from an advisory body (ICRP, NCRP, and the BEIR Committee).
  • The recommended values were derived based largely from studies of survivors of the atomic bomb, and occupational and medical exposure.
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 What Are Exposure Limits to People?
  • Occupational exposures
  • Annual: E < 50 mSv
  • Cumulative: Ecum < (10 mSv) x (age in years)
  • Lens of eye: < 150 mSv/y
  • Skin, hands, feet: < 500 mSv/y
  • Public (one tenth of occupational limits)
  • Embryo and Fetus: < 0.5 mSv/month
  • Negligible Individual Dose: < 0.01 mSv/y
  • Condensed from NCRP Report 116, 1993. Check your local regs!W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 What Are Limits in an Area?
  • Uncontrolled Area
  • E < 500 mSv/y
  • < 0.02 mSv in any one hour
  • Designation of Radiation Areas
  • “Radiation Area”: > 0.05 mSv/h
  • “High Radiation Area”: > 1 mSv/h
  • “Very High Radiation Area”: > 5 Sv/h
  • Condensed from NCRP Report 116, 1993See Homework Problem 4.2W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 2008: Many New Centers …Hospital (existing)Research complex (under construction)Typical setting for contemporary proton therapy facilityCourtesy J KimNCC, KoreaW. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Shielding of Equipment Rooms
  • Usually use ordinary reinforced concrete
  • Sometimes use soil (subgrade or burms)
  • Occasionally use high-density concrete if space is constrained. Expensive!
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Shielding Construction, NCC KoreaCourtesy J KimW. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Use of Soil As Shielding MaterialSoilAcceleratorVaultGantry RoomsFixed BeamTreatment RoomExperimentalRoomW. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Common Design Assumptions
  • Vault shielding is determined by neutrons, not by protons or photons
  • Therapeutic protons should never be incident on the primary shielding barriers
  • Workload, Use Factors, and Occupancy Factors are conceptually analogous (but numerically different) to those for linac-based photon therapy (See NCRP Report 151, 2005)
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Concrete CompositionBuilder’s SpecificationPhysicist’s SpecificationFrom M. F. Kaplan, 1989Hydrogen content and massdensity are particularly important!W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Shielding Design ChallengesComplexity Many sources and barriers Radiation transport physics Regulatory requirementsUncertainty Facility usage patterns Equipment performance Basic dataW. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Neutron ShieldingCalculationsNeutron SourceNeutron ShieldDose Calc PointW. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Burton Moyer Father of Accelerator Health PhysicsFrom Paterson and Thomas, Eds., 1994W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Moyer Model for Slab ShieldingAttenuation, Inverse Square AngularDistributionProductionSee Homework Problem 4.3W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Monte Carlo, To the RescueJohn von Neuman in the 1940s [2].Stanisław Marcin Ulam in the 1950s [1].[1] Immediate source: http://www.zwoje-scrolls.com/zwoje16/text03.htm Ultimate source: Likely from Ulam's autobiography, Adventures of a mathematician[2] http://www.lanl.gov/history/atomicbomb/images/NeumannL.GIFW. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 ControlRoomMaze GantryCyclotronVaultSee Newhauser et al (2002) and Titt et al (2005)W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Ha HMC HmHm63 1.10.9 1.3100 7.1Comparison of MethodsSee Newhauser et al (2002) and Titt et al (2005)W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 IBA / NPTC CyclotronCyclotron235 MeV300 nAExtractionChannelRadialProbeEnergy DegraderWheelW. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Real World Problem:Post-Construction Shield ModificationsNewhauser et al., 2000See Homework Problem 4.4W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 How to Measure Neutron Dose EquivalentPortable: SurveysPatch PanelFixed: Area MonitoringArea Monitoring SystemSee Newhauser et al Rad Prot Dosim 115 149-153 (2005)Area Montoring DisplayGround FloorTreatment FloorSee Newhauser et al Rad Prot Dosim 115 149-153 (2005)Area Monitoring Display1See Newhauser et al Rad Prot Dosim 115 149-153 (2005)Now for the hard question, “Are we doing enough to protect our patients?”W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Is There a Problem with Radiotherapy? In a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2006, which looked at outcomes in more than 10,000 survivors, CCSS researchers found that almost two-thirds of patients reported at least one chronic health problem, one-quarter had a severe condition, and almost one-quarter had three or more chronic health problems.Late effects reported most frequently in this study were second cancers, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, musculoskeletal conditions, and endocrine abnormalities. The risk of developing a health problem related to cancer treatment in childhood increased over time. Women face higher risks than men for late effects including breast cancer, cognitive dysfunction, heart disease, and hypothyroidism. Other factors influencing late effects include age at diagnosis, type of cancer, and types of treatment received. Radiation treatment, especially to the brain - and, in women, the chest - carries a high risk of long-term effects. "Both the magnitude and the diversity of the long-term health effects have been striking," says CCSS principal investigator Dr. Les Robison of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis. "At 30 years after their diagnosis, more than 70 percent of childhood cancer survivors have a late-effect chronic health condition."From NCI Ca Bul, March 18, 2008 • Volume 5 / Number 6W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Is There a Problem in Diagnostic? “There may be disagreement within the medical community about the accuracy of the risk models ... These arguments will not be settled in the near term. However, one fact is indisputable: We must continue our efforts to do a better job of reducing radiation dose to children if and when they need a CT scan.”Goske et al. J Roentgenology 190 273-4 (2008)W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Is Photon Therapy the Problem?Protons(SOBP, 1 field)Photons(6 MV, 1 field)Photon IMRT(15 MV, 9 field)2nd ca [%/y]: 0.8Rel. risk: 150.490.051Miralbell et al., IJROBP 2002W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Is Proton Therapy the Problem? Hall (2007) recently posed the important question, "Does it make any sense to spend over $100 million on a proton facility, with the aim to reduce doses to normal tissues, and then to bathe the patient with a total body dose of neutrons, the RBE of which is poorly known, when the technology to avoid it is available and already in use elsewhere?” In the same article, Hall opined that “Protons are a major step forward for radiotherapy, but neutrons are bad news and must be minimized by the use of spot scanning techniques." See Hall, Technol in Ca Res Treat 2007;6:31-34W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Are Neutrons the Problem?Proton fluenceNeutron fluenceFontenot et al, Phys Med Biol 2008W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Are External Stray Neutrons a Problem?Fontenot et al, Phys Med Biol 2008W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 For Prostate Therapy, What Do We Know With Confidence Thus Far? “Our results revealed that a two-field 76 Gy passively scattered proton treatment delivers an effective dose of only 415 mSv due to stray radiation. This corresponds to alifetime risk for developing a fatal second malignancy from stray radiation exposure of only 2%, assuming that the population-averaged risk coefficient of 5% per Sv (ICRP 1991) is applicable. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the true risk coefficient for a cancer patient is substantially larger and clinically significant. For example, the lifetime risk would approach 20% if the assumed neutron radiation weighting factor were 100, as suggested by Kellerer et al (2006).”Fontenot et al, Phys Med Biol 2008See Homework Problem 4.5W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Protons versus PhotonsFontenot et al, Phys Med Biol 2008W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Are There Ways to Reduce Stray Radiation?
  • Brenner and Hall (2008) wrote "... it would be highly desirable to optimize … passively modulated proton beamlines, in order to reduce the … neutron-related second cancer risk."
  • Taddei et al (2008) recently showed that large improvements are possible; for a typical proton treatment for prostate cancer, an optimized collimation design reduced the neutron exposures from 567 to 355 mSv, which is only 109 mSv more than predicted for a scanned beam treatment.
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Are There Ways to Reduce Stray Radiation?From Taddei et al, Phys Med Biol (in press)The scope of this study was to investigate whether simple methods could be used to reduce stray radiation exposure for patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer. The results of this study suggest that such modifications are feasible and effective. In addition, it appears likely that the effectiveness and compactness of these enhancements may be substantiallyoptimized relative to the nozzle designs unique to each proton therapy facility.W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Summary of Key Points
  • Shielding of proton therapy facilities is predominated by high energy neutrons
  • Important design parameters include concrete composition and density, use factors, workload, and occupancy factors.
  • Are we doing enough to protect our patients?
  • Much recent progress in understanding the physics that govern these risks.
  • The existence of a problem is controversial, as are solutions.
  • Available data suggest protons carry less risk than photons for risk of 2nd Ca.
  • More and better risk assessments are needed to resolve this conclusively.
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 End of Lecture #3W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Homework Problemson Radiation Protection of Patients and StaffSee Homework Problems 4.1 – 4.5W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 Suggested Reading
  • Newhauser WD, Titt U, Dexheimer, D, Yan, X, Nill, S. Neutron shielding verification measurements and simulations for a 235-MeV proton therapy center. Nucl Instr Meth, A 476, 80-84, 2002.
  • Yan X, Titt U, Koehler AM, Newhauser WD. Measurement of neutron dose equivalent to proton therapy patients outside of the proton radiation field. Nucl Instr Meth A 476, 429-434, 2002.
  • Polf JC, Newhauser WD. Calculations of neutron dose equivalent exposures from range-modulated proton therapy beams, Phys Med Biol, 50 3859-3873, 2005.
  • Newhauser WD, Ding X, Giragosian D, Nill S, Titt U. A Neutron Radiation Area Monitoring System for Proton Therapy Facilities, Radiat Prot Dosim, 115 149-153 2005.
  • Polf JC, Newhauser WD, Titt U, Patient neutron dose equivalent exposures outside the proton therapy treatment field, Radiat Prot Dosim 115 154-158 2005.
  • Fontenot J, Newhauser W, Titt U. Design Tools for Proton Therapy Nozzles Based on the Double-Scattering Foil Technique, Radiat Prot Dosim, 116 211-215 2005.
  • Bues M, Newhauser WD, Titt U, Smith AR. Therapeutic step and shoot proton beam spot scanning with a multi-leaf collimator: A Monte Carlo study, Radiat Prot Dosim 115 164-169 2005.
  • Titt U, Newhauser WD, Neutron shielding in a proton therapy facility based on Monte Carlo simulations: the design method of choice, Radiat Prot Dosim 115 144-148 2005.
  • Zheng Y, Newhauser WD, Fontenot JD, Koch N, and Mohan R. Monte Carlo simulation model of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center’s passively scattered proton therapy machine. J Nucl Matl 361 289-297 (2007).
  • Y Zheng, W Newhauser, J Fontenot, P Taddei, D Mirkovic, and R Mohan. Monte Carlo simulation of stray neutron radiation weighting factors and energy distributions in treatment fields produced by a passively scattered proton therapy unit. Phys Med Biol 53 187-201 (2008)
  • J Fontenot, P Taddei, Y Zheng, and W Newhauser. Effective dose from stray radiation during passively-scattered proton radiotherapy of the prostate. Phys Med Biol 53 1677-1688 (2008).
  • P Taddei, J Fontenot, Y Zheng, D Mirkovic, U Titt, A Lee and WD Newhauser. Monte Carlo investigation of local shielding to reduce stray radiation doses to patient receiving proton therapy for prostate cancer. Phys Med Biol. In press (2008).
  • W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25 General ReferencesHealth Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2” The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2006.“Health Physics Society.” 2006. Health Physics Society. http://www.hps.org/Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States (NCRPReport No. 93): National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements,1987.Martin, A. and Harbison, S.A., An Introduction to Radiation Protection. 3rd ed.,London: Chapman and Hall, 1987.W. Newhauser, Proton Therapy Course, 2008-03-25
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