Unit 1 Microbiology

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sunil sharma Sr.Lecturer at cgc
  UNIT-1MICROBIOLOGY Microbiology   (, mīkros , small ; bios , life ; and -λογία,  -logia   ) is the study of  microorganisms , which areunicellular  or cell-cluster  microscopic organisms. [1] Thisincludes eukaryote such asfungiand protists, and prokaryotes, which are  bacteria and archaea.Viruses,though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. [2] Inshort; microbiology refers to the study of life and organisms that are too small to be seenwith the naked eye.Microbiology is a broad term which includesvirology, mycology,  parasitology,  bacteriology and other branches. Amicrobiologist is a specialist in microbiology. HISTORY - History of Microbiology A)   First Observations1.   Robert Hooke: 1665, “cells”, cell theory (= all living things are composed of cells.)2.   Antoni van Leeuwenhoek: 1674-1723, first to see bacteria  B)   The Debate over Spontaneous Generation1.   Aristotle: an influential ancient Greek wrote about spontaneous generation {= nonliving - > living}2.   Francesco Redi: covered meat didn’t develop maggots3.   John Needham: boil-sterilized broth, let it get contaminated, then thought he sawspontaneous generation of microorganisms  4.   Lazzaro Spallanzani: sealed broth, then boiled it – didn’t observe microorganisms,so no spontaneous generation5.   Rudolf Virchow: 1858, biogenesis {= living cells only come from living cells)6.Louis Pasteur: 1861, long necked flask experiments convinced everyone that biogenesis was true, led to the development of aseptic techniques {= those  techniques that prevent contamination by microorganisms) The Golden Age of Microbiology 1857- 1914 1.   this period saw the discovery of the causes of many diseases, advances in theunderstanding of immunity, advances in the understanding of microbial metabolism, etc.2    because of these discoveries most of the 1900’s have been relatively free of plagues,until now… Great Discoveries of the Golden Age 1 .   fermentation {= sugar in fruit juices-> alcohol by Pasteur 2 .   pasteurization {= heating food just enough to kill most of the microorganisms init} by Pasteur 3 .   germ theory of disease {= microorganisms cause many diseases}4.   aseptic surgical techniques by Joseph Lister 5.the first proof that a bacterium {  Bacillus anthracis } causes a disease {anthrax} byRobert Koch which led to the development by him of koch’s Postulates {= logicalstep to proving a microorganism causes a disease}6.vaccination by Edward Jennr 
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