Typhoid Fever

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Typhoid Fever Mayo Clinic Typhoid fever Definition By Mayo Clinic staff Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries. However, it remains a serious health threat in the developing world. Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who's infected. Signs and symptoms usually include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea. When treated with antibiotics,
  Typhoid Fever Mayo Clinic   1 Ahmed_maher2830@yahoo.com  Typhoid fever Definition By Mayo Clinic staff   Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in industrializedcountries. However, it remains a serious health threat in the developing world. Typhoidfever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact withsomeone who's infected. Signs and symptoms usually include high fever, headache,abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea.When treated with antibiotics, most people with typhoid fever feel better within a fewdays, although a small percentage may die of complications.Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they're only partially effective. Vaccinesare usually reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areaswhere typhoid fever is common. Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff   Although children with typhoid fever sometimes become sick suddenly, signs andsymptoms are more likely to develop gradually — often appearing one to three weeks afterexposure to the disease. First week of illness  Once signs and symptoms do appear, you're likely to experience:    Fever, often as high as 103 or 104 F (39.4 or 40 C)    Headache    Weakness and fatigue    Sore throat    Abdominal pain    Diarrhea or constipation    RashChildren are more likely to have diarrhea, whereas adults may become severelyconstipated. During the second week, you may develop a rash of small, flat, rose-coloredspots on your lower chest or upper abdomen. The rash is temporary, usually disappearingin two to five days.  Typhoid Fever Mayo Clinic   2 Ahmed_maher2830@yahoo.com  Second week of illness  If you don't receive treatment for typhoid fever, you may enter a second stage duringwhich you become very ill and experience:    Continuing high fever    Either diarrhea that has the color and consistency of pea soup, or severe constipation    Considerable weight loss    Extremely distended abdomen Third week of illness  By the third week, you may:    Become delirious    Lie motionless and exhausted with your eyes half-closed in what's known as the typhoidstateLife-threatening complications often develop at this time. Fourth week of illness  Improvement may come slowly during the fourth week. Your fever is likely to decreasegradually until your temperature returns to normal in another week to 10 days. But signsand symptoms can return up to two weeks after your fever has subsided. When to see a doctor  See a doctor immediately if you suspect you have typhoid fever. If you become ill whiletraveling in a foreign country, call the U.S. Consulate for a list of doctors. Better yet, findout in advance about medical care in the areas you'll visit, and carry a list of the names,addresses and phone numbers of recommended doctors.If you develop signs and symptoms after you return home, consider consulting a doctorwho focuses on international travel medicine or infectious diseases. A specialist may beable to recognize and treat your illness more quickly than can a doctor who isn't trained inthese areas. Causes By Mayo Clinic staff   Typhoid fever is caused by a virulent bacterium called Salmonella typhi. Although they'rerelated, this isn't the same as the bacteria responsible for salmonellosis, another seriousintestinal infection. Fecal-oral route  The bacteria that cause typhoid fever spread through contaminated food or water andoccasionally through direct contact with someone who is infected. In developing nations,where typhoid is endemic, most cases result from contaminated drinking water and poor  Typhoid Fever Mayo Clinic   3 Ahmed_maher2830@yahoo.com  sanitation. The majority of people in industrialized countries pick up the typhoid bacteriawhile traveling and spread it to others through the fecal-oral route.This means that S. typhi is passed in the feces and sometimes in the urine of infectedpeople. You can contract the infection if you eat food handled by someone with typhoidfever who hasn't washed carefully after using the bathroom. You can also become infectedby drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. Typhoid carriers  Even after treatment with antibiotics, a small number of people who recover from typhoidfever continue to harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tract or gallbladder, often for years.These people, called chronic carriers, shed the bacteria in their feces and are capable of infecting others, although they no longer have signs or symptoms of the diseasethemselves. Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff  Typhoid fever remains a serious worldwide threat  —  especially in the developingworld  —  affecting more than 21 million people each year, according to the Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention. The disease is endemic in India, Southeast Asia,Africa, South America and many other areas.Worldwide, children are at greatest risk of getting the disease, although they generallyhave milder symptoms than adults do.If you live in a country where typhoid fever is rare, you're at increased risk if you:    Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is endemic    Work as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhi bacteria    Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected withtyphoid fever    Have an immune system weakened by medications such as corticosteroids ordiseases such as HIV/AIDS    Drink water contaminated by sewage that contains S. typhi Complications By Mayo Clinic staff    Intestinal bleeding or perforation  The most serious complication of typhoid fever — intestinal bleeding or perforation — maydevelop in the third week of illness. About 5 percent of people with typhoid feverexperience this complication.  Typhoid Fever Mayo Clinic   4 Ahmed_maher2830@yahoo.com  Intestinal bleeding is often marked by a sudden drop in blood pressure and shock, followedby the appearance of blood in your stool.A perforated intestine occurs when your small intestine or large bowel develops a hole,causing intestinal contents to leak into your abdominal cavity and triggering signs andsymptoms such as severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and bloodstream infection(sepsis). This life-threatening emergency requires immediate medical care. Other, less common complications  Other possible complications include:    Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)    Pneumonia    Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)    Kidney or bladder infections    Infections of the spine (osteomyelitis)    Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain andspinal cord (meningitis)    Psychiatric problems such as delirium, hallucinations and paranoid psychosisWith prompt treatment, nearly all people in industrialized nations recover from typhoid.Without treatment, some people may not survive complications of the disease. Preparing for your appointment By Mayo Clinic staff   Call your doctor if you've recently returned from travel abroad and develop mild symptomssimilar to those that occur with typhoid fever. If your symptoms are severe, go to anemergency room or call 911 or your local emergency number.Here's some information to help you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor. Information to gather in advance      Pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make your appointment, ask if thereare any restrictions you need to follow in the time leading up to your visit. Your doctorwill not be able to confirm typhoid fever without a blood test, and may recommendtaking steps to reduce the risk of passing a possible contagious illness to others.    Symptom history. Write down any symptoms you've been experiencing, and for howlong.
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