MOTIVATION

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MOTIVATION. THAT WHICH CAUSES. BEHAVIOR TO BEGIN SUSTAINED BEHAVIOR. MOTIVATION. THE REASON(S) FOR. WANTING TO EXPEND EFFORT WANTING TO DO SOMETHING. WHY DO PEOPLE WORK?. MOTIVATED TO DO WHAT?. POINT: NOT EVERYTHING INFLUENCES HIGHER PERFORMANCE. P = ( f ) M X A X S X E.
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MOTIVATIONTHAT WHICH CAUSES
  • BEHAVIOR TO BEGIN
  • SUSTAINED BEHAVIOR
  • MOTIVATIONTHE REASON(S) FOR
  • WANTING TO EXPEND EFFORT
  • WANTING TO DO SOMETHING
  • WHY DO PEOPLE WORK?MOTIVATED TO DO WHAT?POINT: NOT EVERYTHING INFLUENCES HIGHER PERFORMANCE.P = (f) MX A X S X EM = MOTIVATIONA = ABILITYS = SUPPORT (TOOLS, ASSISTANCE, RESOURCES)E = EXTERNAL CONDITIONSALWAYS WANT TO INCREASEPERFORMANCE?MAY NOT WORK
  • MACHINE PACED
  • IN ASSEMBLY LINE
  • PERISHABLE/FASHION PROD.
  • TOO MUCH INVENTORY
  • Hierarchy of NeedsSelfActualizationEsteemAffiliationSecurityPhysiologicalA.H. Maslow2 Factor TheorySatisfaction- Motivator Factors +Dissatisfaction- Hygiene Factors +F. Herzberg2 Factor Theory% Negative % Positive - 8 ACHIEVEMENT +43 -15 RECOGNITION +35 -12 WORK ITSELF +28 - 8 RESPONSIBILITY+25 -11ADVANCEMENT +21-37 COMPANY POLICY + 5 & ADMIN-21 SUPERVISION + 5-19 SALARY +17-17 INTERPERSONAL REL. + 4-13 WORKING COND. + 3F. HerzbergAcquired Needs TheoryLearn Needs
  • Childhood literature
  • Role models
  • Experiences
  • McClellandNeed for Achievement(nach)
  • Drive to excel
  • Prefer challenging but
  • achievable goals
  • Too challenging = won’t succeed
  • Not challenging = no sense of achievement
  • (nach)Achievers prefer jobs that offer
  • Personal responsibility
  • Feedback
  • Moderate risk
  • Need for power(npow)
  • Control environment
  • Influence people
  • Prefer
  • - being in charge
  • - competition
  • - status oriented situations
  • Need for affiliation(naff)
  • Friendly, close relationships
  • Prefer situations
  • - cooperative
  • - mutual understanding
  • Goal Setting as Motivator
  • Specific, not general
  • Difficult, high
  • - coaching
  • - encourage
  • - support
  • Set by manager
  • - accepted?
  • -------And nach? 10-20% people in U.S. are high nachExpectancy TheoryPerceivedEquityAbilitiesIntrinsicRewardsValue ofRewardsSatisfactionPerformanceEffortExtrinsicRewardsRolePerceptionsPerceivedEffort - RewardProbabilityAdapted from L. Porter & E. Lawler (1968). Managerial attitudes and performance, Irwin, p. 165.Equity TheoryA’s perceptions of:Outcomes A = Outcomes B Inputs A Inputs BIf Inequity Perceived:1. Change real inputs, outcomes (I, O).2. Change perception of I, O.3. Change others’ I, O.4. Change perception of others’ I, O.5. Change referent(s).6. Leave situation.Studies - inequitable pay: (Compared to equitably paid employees)
  • PERCEPTION = OVER-REWARDED
  • Time based pay: produce more
  • (quantity and quality)
  • Quantity based pay: reduce quantity*,
  • increase quality
  • *Assumption: trade-off between quantity and qualityStudies - inequitable pay: (Compared to equitably paid employees)
  • PERCEPTION - UNDER-REWARDED
  • Time based pay: produce less
  • or poorer quality
  • Quantity based pay: increase quantity,
  • reduce quality
  • *Assumption: trade-off between quantity and qualityReinforcement TheoryStimulus Response Consequence(need)Learn from consequence to repeat or not repeat the behaviorReinforcement TheoryLaw of Effect: The greater the satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, with consequence, the stronger the stimulus to behavior link (stronger learning).Reinforcement TheoryLaw of Contiguity: Tie consequence directly to behavior.Law of Immediacy: Administer consequence immediately.Reinforcement TheoryPositive Reinforcement: Positive consequences following behavior (reward)Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance Learning): Remove negative consequence following behavior (don’t get stopped if don’t speed)Punishment: Negative consequence following behaviorExtinction: Withhold positive consequence after behavior (fail to meet goal, no reward)Schedules of ReinforcementScheduleForm of InfluenceIf WithdrawnExampleReinforcement Theory
  • Shaping Behavior:
  • Teaching new behavior
  • Reward “successive approximations”
  • - reward “attempts” early stages
  • - reward often, early stages
  • ------------
  • Same as: Coaching, modeling, teaching….
  • Guides for Positive Reinforcement1. Clearly describe goal, target behavior.2. If overall is complex chain of behaviors, divide into observable, measurable sequence of steps.3. Make sure person has skill, ability to accomplish behavior.4. Select rewards based on person’s needs.5. Arrange setting to encourage desired behavior.6. Reward close approximations, in shaping stage.7. Reward desired behavior immediately.Guides for Punishment1. Tell person what is wrong.2. Tell person what correct behavior is.3. Follow laws of contingent, immediate reinforcement. Punish only improper behavior immediately.4. Make punishment match behavior. Magnitude of punishment = to degree of undesirable behavior.5. Punish in private.“HOT STOVE” RULE
  • IMMEDIACY
  • ADVANCE WARNING
  • CONSISTENCY
  • IMPERSONAL
  • Possible Negative Side-effects of Punishment1. If administered poorly, may cause frustration, humiliation, alienation…2. Threat of punishment may highlight what not to do.3. Does stop unwanted behavior. By itself, does not provide corrections.4. Vulnerable to error of over-generalization.5. Does not encourage internalized behavior; i.e. Threat must always be present.6. May encourage people to respond in kind.SHOULD PUNISHMENT BE USED AT ALL?
  • DOES (CAN) STOP UNWANTED BEHAVIOR.
  • IF UNWANTED BEHAVIOR IS INTENTIONAL
  • KNEW IT WAS WRONG
  • DID IT ANYWAY
  • PUNISH UNINTENTIONAL BEHAVIOR?
  • FRUSTRATION
  • NEGATIVE STRESS
  • COMPETITION as Motivator
  • High interdependent tasks, compete for rewards:
  • productivity decreases
  • Low interdependent tasks, compete for rewards:
  • slight increase in productivity
  • (Miller & Hamblin (1971). “Interdependence, differential rewarding, and productivity” in B. Hinton & J. Reitz Groups and Organizations.)JOB ENRICHMENTas Motivator
  • EVERYONE WANT MORE AUTHORITY,
  • RESPONSIBILITY?
  • SAME AS EMPOWERMENT?
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