Intro to Psych Chapter One Notes

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Intro to Psych Instructor: Laura Fischer Campus: OCC Royal Oak Paul Ikonen July 6, 2010 Chapter One Notes (Notes found direction from the instructor’s provided outline, all notes were taken from required textbook – Psychology, an Introduction tenth edition by Benjamin B. Lahey) I. Psychology is defined as “the science of behavior and mental processes.” A. Psychology is considered to be a science because—like all sciences—knowledge is acquired through systematic observation. 1. Science – Psycho
   Intro to Psych Paul Ikonen Instructor: Laura Fischer July 6, 2010Campus: OCC Royal Oak Chapter One Notes (Notes found direction from the instructor’s provided outline, all notes were taken fromrequired textbook – Psychology, an Introduction tenth edition by Benjamin B. Lahey)I. Psychology is defined as “the science of behavior and mental processes.”A. Psychology is considered to be a science because—like allsciences—knowledge is acquired through systematicobservation.1. Science – Psychologists attempt to understand people bythinking critically about careful, controlled observations.The reliance on rigorous scientific methods of observationus the basis of all science.2. Behavior – is a person’s overt actions that others candirectly observe.3. Mental   Processes – refer to the private thoughts, emotions,feelings, and motives that other people cannot directlyobserve.B. The Goals of Psychology 1. Describe – Information is gathered in scientific studies tohelp psychologists describe behavior and mental processes.2. Predict – Research is done to give psychologists the toolsthey need to  predict  future behavior.3. Understand – Current explanations are always tentative,explanations are not truths but theories. There is alwaysmore to learn and understand  , even to the point of improving or rejecting older theories.4. Influence   behavior and mental processes – It’s not untilwe have identified ways to intentionally influence behavior  that psychology fulfills its promise.II. Modern Psychology developed from the pioneering work of manyindividuals during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.A.Early Psychologists who studied the nature of conscienceexperience included:1. Wilhelm Wundt (Structuralism) – Wundt and Tichener wanted to identify the basic elements that make upconscious experience. They used the process of introspection to look inward at one’s own consciousness.  2. Edward Tichener (Structuralism) – See Wundt, Tichener was a student of Wundt.3. J. Henry Alston (Structuralism) – Best known for hisstudies on the sensations of heat and cold. Also notable for  being the first African American to publish a research paper in a journal of the American PsychologicalAssociation.4. Max Werteimer (Gestalt psychology) – His approach wastermed after the German word “Gestalt” meaning whole.Their primary understanding was that the humanconsciousness could not be broken down into raw elements.“The whole is different than the sum of its parts.” GestaltPsychologists also employed the Phi Phenomenon in whichtwo stationary stimuli give a perception of apparentmovement.B.Founders of psychology who focused on the useful functions of conscience mental processes (functionalism) included:1. William James (functionalist) – Taught the first“Psychology” course in 1875. James used the concept of Darwinism on the human mind. He viewed mental processes as existent only on the basis of their requirementfor our survival as a species. The functions of the mind,not its raw elements, were the subject matter of psychologyfor the functionalists.2. Hermann Ebbinghaus (functionalist) – Completedextensive study on human memory. His conclusions showthat forgetting is very rapid at first but proceeds slowlythereafter. His work provides meaningful example of howrigorous experimental methods can be used to studyfunctions of human consciousness.3. Mary Whiton Calkins (functionalist) – Student of WilliamJames. Calkins studied a series of numbers, each pairedwith colors. Her research, labeled  paired associates ,dominated research on memory for more than fifty years.C.The practice of perspective in psychology known as psychometrics, focusing on the measurement of intelligence andother mental functions, was founded by:1. Alfred Binet (psychometrics) – Binet was called upon byFrance to create a way to determine “intelligent” childrenfrom “unintelligent” ones. His work produced a test thatgave a basic set of questions that should be able to beanswered by children in their specific age groups. The testwas later revised for the United States and is still used andknown as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Versions  of this scale have been adapted for measurement of intelligence, personality and job aptitude.D.Early Psychologists who focused on observable behavior and theimportance of learning (behaviorism) were:1. Ivan Pavlov (behaviorist) – Started the idea of conditioning, where an inherited reflex comes to betriggered by a stimulus that has nothing to do with thatreflex. He showed that even inherited reflexes could beinfluenced dramatically by learning experiences.2. John B. Watson (behaviorist) – proponent of classicalconditioning in the U.S.3. Margaret Floy Washburn (behaviorist) - proponent of classical conditioning in the U.S.E.Pioneers of Psychology who examined who examined the“unconscious mind” were:1. Sigmund Freud (psychoanalysis) – Freud believed that theroots of psychological problems were innate motives,internal states that activate behavior, particularly sexual andaggressive ones. He believed that these motives and theconflicts surrounding them influence us, even though we donot know they exist.2. Carl Rogers (humanistic psychology) – Rogers, like other humanists, believe that while the unconscious mind candefeat the efforts of the conscious mind, the consciousmind of human beings are more likely to determine their own fate. They believe that self-concept is the key elementin decision making. Society, however, makes it difficult tohave an accurate self-concept.F.The perspective that emphasizes the need to understand thenature of the nervous system and other biological systems tounderstand our psychological nature (the Neuroscience perspective) was founded by:1. Santiago Ramon y Cajal (Neuroscience) – Cajal was firstto publish a description of Neurons. His view that the brainis made up of a network of interacting neural cells laid thefoundation for modern understanding of the role of the brain in psychology.G.Cognitive Psychology – a modern form of functionalism,emphasizing the importance of cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, and thinking. In many ways, cognitive psychology is the heart of modern psychology. Social LearningTheory integrates aspects of behaviorism and the cognitive   perspective. Its viewpoint states that the most important aspectsof our behavior are learned from other persons in society.H.The Sociocultural Perspective – states that people can beunderstood only in terms of their culture and other socialinfluences. This perspective is a major influence incontemporary psychology.I.Modern Pshchology1.Basic Psychology – Basic areas of Psychology, usuallyconducted in colleges, universities, research institutions or government agencies, include:a.  Biological     Psych – studies the way in which thenervous system and other organs provide the basisfor behavior and mental processes. b. Sensation and Perception – This specialty isconcerned with how we interpret incoming sensoryinformation.c.  Learning and Memory – The ways in which welearn and remember new information and new skillsare studied in this specialty area.d. Cognition – the study of thinking, perceiving, planning, imagining, creating, dreaming, speaking,listening, and problem solving.e.  Developmental Psych – The field concerned withchanges that take place in people during their lifespan.f. Motivation and emotion – the study of the needsand states that activate and guide behavior.g.  Personality – focuses on the relatively consistentways of behaving that characterize individual persons.h. Social Psych – study of the influence of other  people on our behavior; interpersonal and intimaterelationships; and attitudes and prejudice towardothers.i. Sociocultural Psych – The focusing on ethnic andcultural factors, gender identity, sexual orientation,and related issues.2.Applied Psychology – put the basic knowledge of  psychology to work in helping people, specializing inapplied fields such as:a. Clinical Psych – try to understand and treat seriousand emotional behavioral problems. b. Counseling Psych – help people with personal or school problems and with career choices.
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