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What is Physical Fitness?? y fitness: good physical condition; being in shape or in condition y Physical fitness comprises two related concepts: general fitness (a state of health and well-being) and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or occupations). y A set of attributes that are either health related or performance (or skill) related. Health related f
  What is Physical Fitness??  y fitness: good physical condition; being inshape or in y Physical fitness comprises two relatedconcepts: general fitness (a state of health andwell-being) and specific fitness (a task-orienteddefinition based on the ability to performspecific aspects of sports or occupations) y A set of attributes that are either health relatedor performance (or skill) related. Health relatedfitness comprises those components of fitnessthat exhibit a relationship with health status. y An overall measure of physical attributesincluding cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, body composition y One of the four elements of the game. The player's physical make-up such as agility,flexibility, endurance, speed, quickness, y Physical fitness is a set of attributes a personhas in regards to a person's ability to perform physical activities that require aerobic fitness,endurance, strength, or flexibility and isdetermined by a combination of regular activityand genetically inherited  Physical fitness comprises two related concepts: general fitness (a state of health and well-being)and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspectsof sports or occupations). Physical fitness isgenerally achieved through exercise, correctnutrition and enough rest. It is an important partof life.In previous years [ when? ] ,  fitness was commonlydefined as the capacity to carry out the day¶sactivities without undue fatigue. However, asautomation increased leisure time, changes inlifestyles following the industrial revolutionrendered this definition insufficient. [ citation needed  ]  These days,  physical fitness is considered ameasure of the body¶s ability to functionefficiently and effectively in work and leisureactivities, to be healthy, to resist hypokineticdiseases, and to meet emergency situations. Com p o nents o f physical fitness The President's Council on Physical Fitness andSports²a study group sponsored by thegovernment of the United States²declines tooffer a simple definition of physical fitness.Instead, it developed the following chart: [1 ]   HealthrelatedSkillrelatedSp o rts MetabolicBodycompositionAgilityTeamMorphologicalCardiovascular fitness   Balance   IndividualBoneintegrityFlexibilityMotor coordination   LifetimeOther Muscular endurancePower Other MusclestrengthSpeed ReactiontimeOther Accordingly, a general-purpose physical fitness program must address the followingessentials: [2 ] [  self-published source? ]   y   Cardiovascular endurance y   Flexibility training y   Strength training y   Muscular stamina y   Body composition y   General skill trainingHowever, along with these essentialcomponents, a comprehensive fitness programthat is tailored to an individual will probably  focus on one or more specific skills, [3 ] and onage- [4 ] or health-related needs such as bonehealth. [5 ] Many sources [ citation needed  ] also citemental and emotional health as an important partof overall fitness. This is often presented intextbooks as a triangle made up of three points,which represent physical, emotional, and mentalfitness. Physical fitness can also prevent or treatmany chronic health conditions brought on byunhealthy lifestyle or aging. [6 ] Working out canalso help people sleep better. To stay healthy it'simportant to participate in physical activity. [7 ]   Specific fitness Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person'sability to perform in a specific activity with areasonable efficiency: for example, sports or military service. Specific training preparesathletes to perform well in their sports.Examples are: y   400m sprint: in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobicallythroughout the race. y   Marathon: in this case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to amaximum. y   Many fire fighters and police officersundergo regular fitness testing todetermine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job. [8 ]   y   Members of the United States Army andArmy National Guard must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test(APFT). [9 ]   P hysical fitness is the ability to functioneffectively throughout your workday, performyour usual other activities and still have enoughenergy left over to handle any extra stresses or emergencies which may arise.The components of physical fitness are:* C  ardiorespiratory (  CR) endurance - theefficiency with which the body delivers oxygenand nutrients needed for muscular activity andtransports waste products from the cells.*  Muscular strength - the greatest amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert in asingle effort.*  Muscular endurance - the ability of a muscleor muscle group to perform repeated movementswith a sub-maximal force for extended periodsof times.*  Flexibility - the ability to move the joints or any group of joints through an entire, normalrange of motion.*  Body composition - the percentage of body fata person has in comparison to his or her total body mass.Improving the first three components of fitnesslisted above will have a positive impact on bodycomposition and will result in less fat. Excessive body fat detracts from the other fitnesscomponents, reduces performance, detracts fromappearance, and negatively affects your health.Factors such as speed, agility, muscle power,eye-hand coordination, and eye-footcoordination are classified as components of  motor fitness. These factors most affect your athletic ability. Appropriate training canimprove these factors within the limits of your  potential. A sensible weight loss and fitness program seeks to improve or maintain all thecomponents of physical and motor fitnessthrough sound, progressive, mission specific physical training. P rinciples o f Exercise  Adherence to certain basic exercise principles isimportant for developing an effective program.The same principles of exercise apply toeveryone at all levels of physical training, fromthe Olympic-caliber athlete to the weekend jogger.  These basic principles of exercise must befollowed.  R egularity  To achieve a training effect, you must exerciseoften. You should exercise each of the first four fitness components at least three times a week.Infrequent exercise can do more harm thangood. Regularity is also important in resting,sleeping, and following a sensible diet.  Progression  The intensity (how hard) and/or duration (howlong) of exercise must gradually increase toimprove the level of fitness.  Balance  To be effective, a program should includeactivities that address all the fitness components,since overemphasizing any one of them mayhurt the others. Variety  Providing a variety of activities reduces boredom and increases motivation and progress. Specificity  Training must be geared toward specific goals.For example, people become better runners if their training emphasizes running. Althoughswimming is great exercise, it does not improvea 2-mile-run time as much as a running programdoes.  R ecovery  A hard day of training for a given component of fitness should be followed by an easier trainingday or rest day for that component and/or muscle group(s) to help permit recovery.Another way to allow recovery is to alternate themuscle groups exercised every other day,especially when training for strength and/or muscle endurance. Overload   The work load of each exercise session mustexceed the normal demands placed on the bodyin order to bring about a training effect.A personal fitness program can happenanywhere and at any age. Start off with a pair of  New Balance mens walking shoesand move onto the flagship New Balance 991 Running Shoes when the desire to do more kicks in. Never look  back. COM P ON E NT S OF   P HYSI CAL   F I TN ESS   Health Related c om p o nents : Those factors thatare related to how well the systems of your bodywork 1.   C ardi ov ascular F itness : Theability of the circulatory system(heart and blood vessels) tosupply oxygen to workingmuscles during exercise.2.   B o dy Com p o siti o n : Therelative percentage of body fatcompared to lean body mass(muscle, bone, water,etc)3.   F lexibility : The range of movement possible at various joints.4.   M uscular strength : Theamount of force that can be produced by a single contractionof a muscle5.   M uscular endurance : Theability of a muscle group tocontinue muscle movement over a length of time. Skill Related Com p o nents : Those aspects of fitness which form the basis for successfulsportor activity participation.  1.   Speed : The ability to movequickly from one point toanother in a straight line2.   A gility : The ability of the bodyto change direction quickly3.   B alance : The ability to maintainan upright posture while still or moving4.   Coo rdinati o n : Integration withhand and/or foot movementswith the input of the senses.5.   Reacti o n T i m e : Amount of time it takes to get moving.6.   P ow er : The ability to dostrength work at an explosive pace.The 5 components of physical fitness are oftenused in our school systems, health clubs andfitness centers to gauge how good a shape weare truly in. The 5 components that make uptotal fitness are: y Cardiovascular Endurance y Muscular Strength y Muscular endurance y Flexibility y Body CompositionTotal fitness can be defined by how well the body performs in each one of the components of  physical fitness as a whole. It is not enough to beable to bench press your body weight. You alsoneed to determine how well you can handlerunning a mile etc. C ardi ov ascular endurance is the ability of theheart and lungs to work together to provide theneeded oxygen and fuel to the body duringsustained workloads. Examples would be jogging, cycling and swimming. The Cooper Run is used most often to test cardiovascular endurance. M uscular strength is the amount of force amuscle can produce. Examples would be the bench press, leg press or bicep curl. The push uptest is most often used to test muscular strength. M uscular endurance is the ability of themuscles to perform continuous withoutfatiguing. Examples would be cycling, stepmachines and elliptical machines. The sit up testis most often used to test muscular endurance. F lexibility is the ability of each joint to movethrough the available range of motion for aspecific joint. Examples would be stretchingindividual muscles or the ability to performcertain functional movements such as the lunge.The sit and reach test is most often used to testflexibility. B o dy c om p o siti o n is the amount of fat masscompared to lean muscle mass, bone and organs.This can be measured using underwater weighing, Skinfold readings, and bioelectricalimpedance. Underwater weighing is consideredthe ³gold standard´ for body fat measurement,however because of the size and expense of theequipment needed very few places are set up todo this kind of measurement. Why the need f  o r physical fitness testing?  As stated earlier the 5 components of physicalfitness represent how fit and healthy the body isas a whole. When you have the battery of tests performed you will receive information on thespecific areas you made need to work in. A veryspecific goal oriented fitness program can bedeveloped from the test battery.If body composition is of (higher fat comparedto muscle mass) there are many health relateddiseases and illnesses you have a higher chanceof contracting. It is important to combinehealthy eating habits with your exercise program.If you scored low on the cardiovascular test youwould have a higher chance of being at risk for heart related illnesses and would not do wellwith activities that require longer times tocomplete. You would participate in things suchas long bike rides, swimming and jogging for extended periods of time to correct thiscomponent.
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