WTO Annual Report 2010

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Annual Report 2010 Who we are The World Trade Organization deals with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. The 2010 Annual Report is split into two main sections. The first is a brief summary of the organization and a review of 2009. The second section provides more in‑depth information. Website: www.wto.org General enquiries: enquiries@wto.org Tel: +41 (0)22 739 51 11 Using this report Fi
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  Annual Report 2010  The World Trade Organizationdeals with the global rules o trade between nations. Its mainunction is to ensure that trade fows as smoothly, predictablyand reely as possible.The 2010 Annual Report issplit into two main sections.The rst is a brie summaryo the organization and areview o 2009. The secondsection provides morein‑depth inormation.Website: www.wto.orgGeneral enquiries:enquiries@wto.orgTel: +41 (0)22 739 51 11 Who we areUsing this reportFind out more  01 World Trade OrganizationAnnual Report 2010 R E V I  E WT R a dE nE  g oT I  a T I   on s I  mp l E mE nT a T I   ona ndm onI  T  oR I  n g s E  C R E T a R I  a T a ndB  Ud gE T  o UT R E a  C HB  UI  l dI  n gT R a dE  C a p a  C I  T y dI   s p  UT E  s E T T l E mE nT  WTO websitewww.wto.org sECTI E Understanding the WTO 02 Who we are A global membershipWhat we stand for A year in reviewWhat we do A message from WTO Director-General Pascal LamyHow it all comes together Ministerial Conference 2009 sECTI TW Trade negotiations 14 Changes to the rules of trade require the agreement of all WTO members,who must reach consensus through rounds of negotiations. The most recentround began in 2001. Implementation and monitoring 28 Various WTO councils and committees seek to ensure that WTO agreements arebeing properly implemented. All WTO members undergo periodic scrutiny of theirtrade policies and practices. Dispute settlement 80 WTO members bring disputes to the WTO if they think their rights under tradeagreements are being infringed. Settling disputes is the responsibility of theDispute Settlement Body. Building trade capacity 104 The WTO aims to help developing countries build their trade capacity and allowsthem a longer time to implement trade agreements. Hundreds of training coursesare organized each year for ofcials from developing countries. Outreach 118 The WTO maintains regular dialogue with non-governmental organizations,parliamentarians, other international organizations, the media and the generalpublic to enhance cooperation and raise awareness of trade issues. Secretariat and budget 138 The WTO Secretariat has over 600 regular staff and coordinates the activities of theWTO. Most of the WTO’s annual budget consists of contributions by its 153 members. Abbreviations 152 Further information   inside back cover  02 World Trade OrganizationAnnual Report 2010What is the WTO?www.wto.org/whatiswto Understanding the WTO Virtually all decisionsin the WTO are takenby consensus amongall member countries.A brief history The WTO began life on 1 January 1995but its trading system is half a centuryolder. Since 1948, the GeneralAgreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)had provided the rules for the system.Whereas GATT had mainly dealt withtrade in goods, the WTO and itsagreements now cover trade in services,and in traded inventions, creations anddesigns (intellectual property). Who we are There are a number of wa of ookin at the Wor Trae ranization. It i anoranization for trae oenin. It i a forum for overnment to neotiate traeareement. It i a ace for them to ette trae iute. It oerate a temof trae rue. Eentia, the WT i a ace where member overnment trto ort out the trae robem the face with each other. The WTO was born out of negotiations, and everything the WTO does is the result ofnegotiations. The bulk of the WTO’s current work comes from the 1986–94 negotiationscalled the Uruguay Round and earlier negotiations under the General Agreement onTariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO is currently the host to new negotiations, under the‘Doha Development Agenda’ launched in 2001.Where countries have faced trade barriers and wanted them lowered, the negotiationshave helped to open markets for trade. But the WTO is not just about opening markets,and in some circumstances its rules support maintaining trade barriers – for example,to protect consumers or prevent the spread of disease.At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’strading nations. These documents provide the legal ground rules for internationalcommerce. They are essentially contracts, binding governments to keep their tradepolicies within agreed limits. Although negotiated and signed by governments, thegoal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct theirbusiness, while allowing governments to meet social and environmental objectives.The system’s overriding purpose is to help trade ow as freely as possible – so longas there are no undesirable side effects – because this is important for economicdevelopment and well-being. That partly means removing obstacles. It also meansensuring that individuals, companies and governments know what the trade rulesare around the world, and giving them the condence that there will be no suddenchanges of policy. In other words, the rules have to be ‘transparent’ and predictable.Trade relations often involve conicting interests. Agreements, including thosepainstakingly negotiated in the WTO system, often need interpreting. The mostharmonious way to settle these differences is through some neutral procedure basedon an agreed legal foundation. That is the purpose behind the dispute settlementprocess written into the WTO agreements. ri In April theMarrakeshAgreementestablishingthe WTOis signed.GATT 1994 isincorporatedin the WTO’sumbrellatreaty fortrade ingoods. Januar The WTOis born on1 January. a RenatoRuggiero(Italy) takesofceas WTODirector-General. Februar WTOGeneralCouncilcreates theRegionalTradeAgreementsCommittee. december FirstMinisterialConferencetakes placein Singapore. december 70 WTOmembersreach amultilateralagreementto open theirnancialservicessector. a SecondMinisterialConferencetakes placein Geneva. setember Mike Moore(NewZealand)becomesWTODirector-General. ovember ThirdMinisterialConferencetakes place inSeattle, US. Januar Negotiationsbegin onservices. arch Negotiationsbegin onagriculture.    1   9   9  4   1   9   9   5  WTOestablished    1   9   9   6   1   9   9   7   1   9   9   8   1   9   9   9   2   0   0   0
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