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W HAT IS S UPERCONDUCTIVITY? Basic expt: (Onnes 1911). V. Cu A l Cu. ~. S. S. perfect diamagnetism (Meissner effect) equilibrium effect. persistent currents, astronomically stable metastable effect.

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WHAT IS SUPERCONDUCTIVITY?Basic expt: (Onnes 1911)V Cu Al Cu~SSperfect diamagnetism(Meissner effect)equilibrium effectpersistent currents, astronomically stablemetastable effectNo a priori guarantee these two phenomena always go together!(but in fact seem to, in all “superconductors” known to date).z, supr.STRUCTURE OF A TYPICAL CUPRATEn = 1, 2, 3…(“homologous series”)“charge reservoir”“spacer”(alk. earth, rare-earth, Y, La….)Ex: (Tl –2212, n = 2)Cu++O– –~3.5Å~10ÅCa++Charge reservoir(Tl2Ba2O4)CuO2 plane as viewed from above:Note: Each CuO2 plane has valency—2e per formula unit, hence homologous series require spacer with +2e (i.e., typically alkaline earth (Ca++, Sr++ . . .)(Ca++)(Cu++)(O--)“CANONICAL” PHASE DIAGRAM OFCUPRATES AS FUNCTION OF T AND DOPING (COMPOSITE):“Strange metal”Pseudogap(UD)Tc(p)OD(“Fermi-Liquid”)AF insulatorT Superconductor0•160•27p Mott InsulatorIn-plane doping per CuO2 unit“optimal” doping(p 0•18(?))CuDoping: e.g. Y Ba2 Cu3 O6+x, La2–x Srx CuO4O For any given compound, can find mapping from x (chemical stoichiometry) to p(no. of holes per CuO2 unit in plane) which makes phase diagram and properties “per plane” approx. “universal,” : but difficult to check directly.: SOME BASIC FACTS ABOUT CUPRATESUntil 2008, unique in showing (reproducible) supy at T> 50 K. (>200 different materials). (2008: FeAs compounds, T~55K). However, some cuprates which can never be made superconducting (multilayers spaced by Sr or Ba). Both N– and S– state props. highly anisotropic (e.g., in Bi 2212, c/ab ~105) Many N-state props. very anomalous (e.g., ab ~T,H ~a + bT2). (S: rather “normal”!) Most N- (and S-) state props. approximately consistent with hypothesis that at given doping, properties of CuO2 phase are universal. ( transport properties prob. sensitive to near-plane disorder, e.g. La2–xSrxCuO4.) When S state occurs, v. sensitive to doping and pressure, (e.g., Hg–1201: Tc = 95 – 120 K)Atm. 20 GPa For Ca-spaced homologous series, Tc always rises with layer multiplicity n up to n = 3, thereafter falls slightly. (?) Macroscopic EM props of S state show large fluctuations, esp. in high magnetic fields (extremetype-II) RT “Tc”WHAT DO WE KNOW FOR SURE ABOUTSUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN THE CUPRATES?Flux quantization and Josephson experiments ODLRO in 2-particle correlation function, i.e., superconductivity due to formation of Cooper pairs, i.e.: basic “topology” of many-body wave function is ~A{(r1r212)(r3r434)….(rN–1rNN–1N)} antisymmetricSame “molecular” wave function for all pairs (quasi-BEC!)For most purposes, more convenient to work in terms of related quantity“pair wave function” (anomalous average)Note: “Macroscopic wave function” of Ginzburg and Landau, (R), is just F(r1r212) for 1= –2=+1, r1 = r2 = R, i.e. wave function of COM of Cooper pairs.tripletsingletsTc and (b) Hc:WHAT DO WE KNOW FOR SURE . . . .? (cont.)6. Josephson (phase-sensitive) experiments at least in YBCO, Tl-2201, NCCO. . . .symmetry of pair wave function is dx2–y2i.e. odd under /2 rotn in ab-plane,even under refln in a- or b-axis(in bulk: near (110) surface, d + is?) c-axis resistivity hopping time between unit cells along c-axis » /kBTpairs in different multilayers effectively independent(but cf. Anderson Interlayer Tunneling theory) Absence of substantial isotope effect (in higher –Tc cuprates) + “folk-theorems” on Tcphonons do not play major role in cuprate superconductivity.( Newns and Tsuei) NOTE: AT LEAST 95% OF LITERATURE MAKESALL OF ABOVE ASSUMPTIONS AND A LOT MOREe.g. 2d Hubbard, t-J, gauge field … all special cases of generic Hamiltonians based on these features. + +––––+ +[: Li et al.]HOW WILL WE KNOW WHEN WE HAVE A “SATISFACTORY” THEORY OF HTS IN THE CUPRATES?Thesis: We should (at least) be able to: (A) give a blueprint for building a robust room-temperature superconductor,OR (B) assert with confidence that we will never be able to build a (cuprate-related) RT superconductorOR (C) say exactly why we cannot do either (A) or (B)In the meantime, a few more specific questions: (1) Are the cuprates unique in showing HTS? (2) If so, what is special about them? (e.g. band structure, 2-dimensionality, AF …) (3) Should we think of HTS as a consequence of the anomalous N-state properties, or vice versa? (4) Is there a second phase transition associated with the T* line? If so, what is the nature of the LT (“pseudogap”) phase? (5) If yes to (4), is this relevant to HTS or a completely unconnected phenomenon? (6) Why does Tc depend systematically on n in homologous series?SOME REPRESENTATIVE CLASSES OF “MODELS” OFCOOPER PAIRING IN THE CUPRATES(conservative exotic):Phonon-induced attraction (“BCS mechanism”) problems: N-state ab(T)T down to T~10 K (Bi-2201 Tc)no isotope effect in higher –Tc HTSfolk-theorems on Tc (but : FeAs compounds) Attraction induced by exchange of some other boson:— spin fluctuations— excitons— fluctuations of “stripes”— more exotic objects Theories starting from single-band Hubbard model:* Attempts at direct solution, computational or analytic Theories based on postulate of “exotic ordering” in groundstate (e.g. spin-charge separation) Problems: — to date, no direct evidence for exotic order — T* line appears to be unrelated to Tc (and, “Nature has no duty ….”) ↑ ↑ hopping on-site repulsion*See e.g. P.A. Lee, Reps. Prog. Phys. 71, 012501 (2008)()potential en of cond.n e-,s in field of static latticeIHOW CAN PAIRING SAVE COULOMB ENERGY?[exact]bare densityresponse functionCoulomb interaction(repulsive)A. (typical for )pertn-theoretic resultto decrease must decrease but gap should change sign (d-wave?)B. (typical for ) to decrease (may) increase and thus (possibly) increased correlations increased screening decrease of Coulomb energy! electrons haveopposite momentum (and spin)electrons havearbitrary momentum (and spin)ELIASHBERG vs. OVERSCREENING–k' interactionfixedk'ELIASHBERGk–k REQUIRES ATTRACTION IN NORMAL PHASEinteraction modified by pairingk3k4OVERSCREENINGk1k2NO ATTRACTION REQUIRED IN NORMAL PHASE

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