Tugas ELT Chapter 8

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b. Some other commonly used designs This section describes some additional designs, experimental and non-experimental, commonly used in the social science and humanities. 1. The cross-over comparative experimental design The denial of treatment to the control group is considered unethical by some professionals. In addition, the denial of treatment may be unacceptable to some individuals in the control group, which could result in them dropping out of the experiment and/or going elsewhere to rece
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  b. Some other commonly used designs This section describes some additional designs, experimental and non-experimental,commonly used in the social science and humanities. 1. The cross-over comparative experimental design The denial of treatment to the control group is considered unethical by some professionals. In addition, the denial of treatment may be unacceptable to someindividuals in the control group, which could result in them dropping out of theexperiment and/or going elsewhere to receive treatment. The cross-over experimentaldesign makes it possible to measure the impact of t a treatment without denying treatmentto any group, though this design has its own problems. One of the main disadvantages of this design is discontinuity in treatment. 2. The replicated cross-sectional design This design is based upon the assumption that participants at different stages of a program are similar in terms of their socio-economic-demographic characteristic and the problem for which they are seeking intervention. 3. Trend studies If you want to map change over a period, a trend study is the most appropriatemethod of investigation. Trend analysis enables you to find out what has happened in the past, what is happening now and what is likely to happen in the future in a populationgroup.This design involves selecting a number of data observation points in the past,together with a picture of the present or immediate past with respect to the phenomenonunder study and then making certain assumptions as to future trends. 4. Cohort studies Cohort studies are based upon the existence of a common characteristic such as year of birth, graduation or marriage, within a sub-group of a population.  5. Panel studies Trend Cohort and panel studies are similar except that panel studies are longitudinaland prospective in nature and collect information from the same respondents. In trend andcohort studies the information can be collected in a cross-sectional manner and theobservation points can be retrospectively constructed, whereas in a panel study theobservation are made over a period of time and are prospective in nature. 6. Blind studies The concept of a blind study can be used with comparable and placeboexperimental designs and is applied to studies measuring the effectiveness of a drug. In a blind study, the study population does not know whether it is getting real or faketreatment. 7. Double-blind studies The concept of a double blind study is very similar to that of a blind study exceptthat it also tries to eliminate the researcher’s bias: the researcher does not know theidentity of experimental and placebo groups. In a double blind study neither theresearcher nor the subjects know who is receiving real and who is receiving faketreatment. 8. Case studies The case study method is an approach to studying a social phenomenon through athorough analysis of an individual case. The case may be a person, group, episode, process, community, society or any other unit of social life. All data relevant to the case being studied is typical of cases of certain type so that, through intensive analysis,generalizations may be made that will be applicable to other cases of the same type.
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