The Square Kilometre Array: an update

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The Square Kilometre Array: an update. Steve Rawlings UoOxford and PrepSKA Coordinator Richard Schilizzi SKA Program Development Office Japan, November 2010. A Global Collaboration. Science SKA Science & Engineering Committee. Coordination SKA Program Development Office. Policy
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The Square Kilometre Array: an updateSteve Rawlings UoOxford and PrepSKA CoordinatorRichard SchilizziSKA Program Development OfficeJapan, November 2010A Global CollaborationScienceSKA Science & Engineering CommitteeCoordinationSKA Program Development Office PolicyAgencies SKA GroupprocessorThe SKA Concept a large radio telescope for transformational science
  • ~1 million m2 collecting area distributed over a distance of 3000+ km but with ~50% of collecting area in a compact (~5 km diameter) core
  • Operating as an interferometer at frequencies from 70 MHz to at least 10 GHz (4m-3cm), with at least two detector technologies: aperture arrays and dishes
  • Connected to a hierarchical processing system via optical fibre network, and a green-computing icon
  • Phased roll-out: SKA1 and SKA2
  • providing
  • >>10-times (~102) x sensitivity of any previous telescope
  • >>1000-times (~104-6) x the mapping speed
  • SKA Phases
  • Construction will proceed in two phases: SKA1and SKA2
  • SKA1 (cost ~€350m) will be a subset of SKA2 (additional cost ~€1.2B) : low-frequency (70-450 MHz) aperture array with >10% of the final sensitivity, plus dishes (0.45->10 GHz) with ~10% of the final sensitivity Breakthrough science observations possible with SKA1 before 2020ALMAJWSTIXOGreat Observatories for the coming decades E-ELTSKAProject StatusROADMAPSEurope AstroNetSKA and E-ELT equally high priority for ground-based large-scale projects US Decadal Review SKA represents the “long-term future for radio astronomy”. Mid-decade review opportunity for further fundingAustralia Decadal Plan: Pathway to SKA remains #1 priority for radio astronomy in Australia. €200M in investment in radio astronomy infrastructure/capability.African Union Heads of State acknowledge importance of SKA in the development of knowledge-based economies and driving HCD programs. South Africa is spending €200M on radio astronomy.Key Period
  • SKA project is evolving quickly
  • significant investments in tech. verification programs, pathfinders & precursors
  • - government ministries & funding agencies are engaged
  • Key decisions coming up (2010-12)
  • future organisation & governance for pre- construction phase (2012-15)
  • pre-construction funding
  • site decision
  • SKA Key Science DriversORIGINS
  • Neutral Hydrogen in the Universe from the Dark Ages to the Epoch of Re-ionisation to now
  • When did the first stars and galaxies form?
  • How did galaxies evolve?
  • Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Neutrino masses
  • Cradle of Life: protoplanetary disks, exoplanets
  • FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
  • Pulsars, General Relativity & gravitational waves, Gravitational Wave Telescope, Quantum Gravity
  • Origin & Evolution of cosmic magnetism
  • TRANSIENTS (NEW PHENOMENA)Science with the Square Kilometre Array(2004, eds. C. Carilli & S. Rawlings, New Astron. Rev.,48)Key Science for Phase 1 (SKA1) ORIGINS
  • Neutral Hydrogen in the Universe from the Dark Ages through the Epoch of Re-ionisation to now
  • When did the first stars, galaxies and black holes form?
  • How did they re-ionize the Universe?
  • How did Hydrogen settle into
  • FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
  • Pulsars, General Relativity & gravitational waves
  • Science with the Square Kilometre Array(2004, eds. C. Carilli & S. Rawlings, New Astron. Rev.,48)Square Kilometre ArrayTechnical Requirement SnapshotBaseline Design for SKA1
  • 1)Low frequency array for 70-450 MHz for measurements of Dark Ages, Epoch of Re-ionisation and Hydrogen in the distant universe
  • 2)Dish array with single pixel feeds for 0.45-3 GHz
  • for pulsar timing  tests of strong gravity and gravitational waves, and Hydrogen in the nearby universeSKA1 baseline design 250 DishesCentral RegionSingle pixel feed50 Sparse Aperture ArraysArtist renditions from Swinburne Astronomy ProductionsAdvanced Instrumentation
  • Further development of innovative wide-field “radio camera” technologies at mid-frequencies
  • potential for enhancing SKA1 and be a major part of SKA2
  • dense aperture array (FoV ~ 200 deg2)phased array feeds (PAFs) on the dishes (FoV ~ 30 deg2)
  • Decision in 2016
  • SKA2 including AIP technologies250 Dense Aperture Arrays3000 Dishes3-Core Central RegionWide Band Single Pixel Feeds250 Sparse Aperture ArraysPhased Array FeedsArtist renditions from Swinburne Astronomy ProductionsDishes, feeds, receivers (N=3000)Aperture arrays (N=250, n=104-5)Signal transport (800 Tbit/s)Signal processing (exa-MACs)Software engineering and algorithm developmentHigh performance computing (exa-flop capability)Data storage (exa-byte capacity)(Distributed) power requirements (50 -100 MW)SKAis driving development of new science &technical solutionsongoing verification programsINDUSTRY ENGAGEMENT IS CENTRAL TO THE SKA (see Diamond talk) SKA System Design (2007-2012)Contributing programs (70 fte/yr)
  • EC FP6 SKA Design Study (SKADS)
  • EC FP7 Preparatory Phase (PrepSKA)
  • US Technology Development Program
  • “Precursor” telescopes on the candidate sites: ASKAP, MWA (AU), MeerKAT (SA)
  • “Pathfinder” telescopes like LOFAR, APERTIF
  • Baseline design component: Sparse aperture arrays for the lowest frequenciesLOFAR (Netherlands et al)MWA (USA, Australia)ATA (USA)MeerKAT42x6m hydroformed dishesCART(Canada)10 m composite prototypeBaseline design component: Dishes + single pixel feedsMeerKAT (South Africa)64x13.5-m composite dishesASKAP (Australia)36x12m panel dishesAdvanced Instrumentation Program: dishes+multi-pixel feedsASKAPchequer board arrayAPERTIF (Astron, NL)DRAO CanadaAdvanced Instrumentation Program: dense aperture arrayEMBRACE2-PADFP6-SKADSSKA phase 2SKA phase 1Pawsey Centre PetascaleSystemSDBASKAPFiber optic transmissionNCI Altix testsNote that Flops numbers are not achieved - we actually get much lower efficiency because of memory bandwidth - so scaling is relativeASKAP dev clusterSignal transport, signal processingSKA Site
  • Physical requirements
  • Extremely radio quiet environment
  • At least 3000 km in extent
  • Low ionospheric turbulence
  • Low tropospheric turbulence
  • Two candidates short-listed in 2006
  • Site selection process
  • decision2010 2011 2012Site characterisationSite selection criteria establishedSite evaluationRFI measurements in progressSouth Africa + 7 countriesWP1PrepSKA management (STFC, U Oxford, U Manchester)WP2Costed telescope design (SPDO)WP3Further site characterization in Australia+NZ and Southern Africa(SPDO)WP4Governance(NWO, NL)WP5Procurement and involvement of industry (INAF, Italy)WP6Options for funding (STFC, UK)WP7Impact on broad government priorities(U Manchester)WPs 3-7 will be completed by 31March 2011 WPs 1-2 by 31 March 2012PrepSKA: 7 work packagesCurrent Governance Funding agencies and governments from 12 countries (chair: UK Science and Technical Facilities Council) Aim is to deliver a Joint Agreement on the Implementation of the SKA in 2011/12Work streamsPre-construction Funding and Interim Governance Site selection process Joint ASG-SSEC Working Group to establish selection criteria Agencies SKA GroupTechnical2008-12 telescope system design and cost 2013-15 detailed design & pre-construction phase2016-19 Phase 1 construction2016 Advanced Instrumentation Program decision2018-23 Phase 2 construction 2020 full science operations with Phase 12024 full science operations with Phase 2Programmatic2011 establish SKA organisation as a legal entity2012 site selection2014 construction funding approved for Phase 1 (350 M€, 2007)2017 construction funding approved for Phase 2 (1.2 B€, 2007)Schedule for the SKA Further informationwww.skatelescope.orgGreen Bank TelescopeExpanded Very Large Array Very Long Baseline ArrayAreciboAustralian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP)Allen Telescope Array (ATA)SKA PrecursorsKaroo Array Telescope (meerKAT, ZA)Green Bank TelescopeExpanded Very Large Array Very Long Baseline ArrayAreciboAustralian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP)Allen Telescope Array (ATA)SKA Precursors
  • Meter-wavelength instruments
  • Epoch of Reionization
  • Sparse arrays
  • Signal transmission
  • Processing and data management
  • Karoo Array Telescope (meerKAT, ZA)Green Bank TelescopeExpanded Very Large Array Very Long Baseline ArrayAreciboAustralian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP)Allen Telescope Array (ATA)SKA PrecursorsKaroo Array Telescope (meerKAT, ZA)
  • Large-Number–Small-Diameter Arrays
  • Galaxy Assembly & Evolution, Gravitational Physics, Dynamic Radio Sky, …
  • Novel antenna construction methods
  • Wide-band feeds
  • Field of view expansion
  • Signal transmission
  • Processing and data management
  • Green Bank TelescopeExpanded Very Large Array Very Long Baseline ArrayAreciboAustralian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP)Allen Telescope Array (ATA)SKA Precursors
  • Existing facilities
  • Epoch of Reionization, Galaxy Assembly & Evolution, Gravitational physics, Dynamic Radio Sky, …
  • Wide band feeds
  • Field of view expansion
  • Signal transmission
  • Processing and data management
  • Karoo Array Telescope (meerKAT, ZA)
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