Sink jobs and gender inequalities

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Sub-brand to go here. Sink jobs and gender inequalities. Shirley Dex Centre for Longitudinal Studies, GeNet. CLS is an ESRC Resource Centre based at the Institute of Education. Introduction. This topic important for gender inequality
Sub-brand to go hereSink jobs and gender inequalitiesShirley DexCentre for Longitudinal Studies, GeNetCLS is an ESRC Resource Centre based at the Institute of EducationIntroduction
  • This topic important for gender inequality
  • Topic is part of a larger research project on career mobility over men’s and women’s lives
  • Using the ESRC British Birth Cohorts data resources which offer large-scale, very rich data on men’s and women’s employment and career histories
  • Edit footer detail manuallyPlan of the Talk
  • What are the potential gender equality issues an economic downturn raises?
  • What is happening to women’s and men’s jobs in the credit crunch set against what has been happening earlier?
  • What do we know from the past about the effects of economic downturns?
  • On entry into the labour market
  • On career development over time
  • Conclusions
  • Edit footer detail manuallyPotential gender equality issues
  • Are women disproportionately affected compared with men in
  • Losing jobs/redundancy?
  • Getting their first jobs at entry to the labour market ?
  • Getting promotions within jobs?
  • Is there a difference in what happens at the top and bottom ends of the occupational hierarchy?
  • Are there different experiences between sub-groups of women/men – some more vulnerable than others?
  • Unemployment rates, Employment millions,1971-20089Conclusions - gender differences in employment?
  • Yes, sector and occupational gender differences
  • But ‘No’, evidence on inequalities in employment, or job loss
  • It’s too early to say whether there are or will be disproportionate job losses by gender
  • Part-time jobs, mainly held by women, mainly at the bottom of the occupational hierarchy, have been unaffected by economic cycles in the past.
  • Child careDomestic staff & related occupationsHairdressers, beauticiansOther occs in agricultureCateringSales assistantsOther occs in sales & servicesReceptionistsRoad transport operativesOther occupations in miningPersonal & protective servicesTextile, garment & relatedFood preparationEconomic downturn effects on entry into the lowest occupations 1958 cohortLeft school at Unemp 16 3% 18 5.2% 21 4.8% 1970 cohortLeft school at Unemp 16 11.8% 18 8.6% 21 10.4%Conditions at entryEffects on career progression
  • Men and women who enter lowest ranking occupations have approximately equal chances of upward career mobility in their early careers.
  • For men, the lowest level jobs were like a stepping stone to a better position
  • But women tend to fall back much more than men. For women low level occupations are more of a trap.
  • Changes between cohorts - women
  • The effects of entering at the lowest levels was worse for women in the 1970 cohort compared with the 1958 cohort
  • Women born in 1970 entering in labour market had compared with women born in 1958
  • Higher proportions in the lowest jobs
  • Lower chances of mobility out of these jobs
  • Higher chances of downward mobility once they got out of the bottom occupations
  • Effects of lowest entry occupations on risk of downward mobility over rest of careerWOMEN3rd levelTop levelBottom level4th levelCohort-1958-0.252nd level0.25-0.500.52nd levelBottom levelTop level3rd level4th levelCohort-1970-0.2500.25-0.50.5MENTop level3rd level2nd level4th levelCohort-19580.25-0.250Bottom level-0.50.53rd levelTop level2nd levelCohort-19704th levelBottom level-
  • There are some pointers from previous recessions about what might happen. In the current recession:
  • Young women may enter the labour market with lower occupational status than young men, on average.
  • Young women entering the labour market at the bottom of the occupational hierarchy may do worse than young women from an earlier birth cohort, entering in better labour market conditions in earlier periods.
  • Young women who enter at the bottom of the occupational hierarchy may do worse in their subsequent career chances than an earlier cohorts who entered under better conditions.
  • Questions?
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