Cognitive Development During the School Years

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Cognitive Development During the School Years. Later Years Development Lecture 1. Last Year. Early years developments Infancy (0 - 2) visual processing number social interactions Preschool years (2 - 5) counting language identity/gender. This Year.
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Cognitive Development During the School YearsLater Years DevelopmentLecture 1Last Year...Early years developments Infancy (0 - 2) visual processing number social interactions Preschool years (2 - 5) counting language identity/genderThis Year...Later years developments.... School years (5 - 11) Cognitive changes Adolescence (12 - 19?) Theories of adolescence Identity Morality Old age (50+) Memory AttentionAims of this lectureIntroduce cognitive changes evident during primary school yearsAfter this lecture (and the reading!) you should be able to:- recognize which types of memory are likely to impact on learning.- identify the processes that interact with memory to enhance performance.- explain how metacognitive/metamemory processes also impact on learning.Information Processing: Memory[1] Memory Sensory memory (i.e., in seconds) Working memory Long term memoryInformation Processing: Memory[1] Memory Sensory memory (i.e., in seconds) Working memory Long term memoryHow much information can be stored in these memory systems?Is information ‘lost’ in these systems?Are there developmental trends in these systems?Sensory MemorySperling (1960) Processing visual information Ss presented with matrix 12 of letters for 1/20th second Immediate free recall? approx 40% (4 - 5 letters)Sensory MemorySperling (1960) Immediate recall of specific (e.g., top) row - 80% target row revealed after 0.3 sec - 55% target row revealed after 1.0 sec - 40%Conclusion?1/20 sec exposure creates visual trace trace fades within 1/3 sec disappears after 1 secSensory MemoryWhy does recall vary with delay? Without knowing which row - retention of all 12 letters determines scoreOnce target row is known - recall letter string (e.g., P Z A) - remaining rows can fade without impairing scoreDoes sensory memory improve with age?Slightly - but only small advancesPhonological loopVisuo-spatial sketchpadCentral ExecutiveWorking MemoryWorking memory = active (as opposed to passive sensory memory) Memory traces are ‘rehearsed’ (via rehearsal ‘loop’) allowing additional processing on new information. Working memory is ‘strategic’ Once we are aware of WM - possible to ‘use’ itWorking MemoryTowse et al. (1998). Counting span task (small and large arrays - 2-5 vs 6-8 items)Count the red triangles afterwards, recall the sequence of cardinal numbersWorking MemoryTowse et al. (1998). Counting span task (small and large arrays - 2-5 vs 6-8 items)Count the red triangles afterwards, recall the sequence of cardinal numbersWorking MemoryTowse et al. (1998). Counting span taskWorking MemoryTowse et al. (1998). Counting span taskWorking MemoryTowse et al. (1998). Counting span task???Working MemoryTowse et al. (1998). Counting span task325Working MemoryQ. Does WM improve with age?Towse, Hitch & Hutton (1998) - Counting span taskSpan when last targetis small and largeLong-Term MemoryDoes long-term memory improve with age? Confound between the amount of knowledge you hold in LTM and the number of life experiences (i.e., age).However, Kail (2000) found that 11-year-olds retrieve information from LTM six times faster than 4/5-year-olds.. ....although not as quickly as adults.Therefore, developmental trend in LTM retrieval. Memory & AttentionDevelopmental trends in WM and LTM means there is more to ‘memory’ than just ‘memory’....Three aspects that influence information processing: [1] Automatization - some processes require less attention than others [2] Organization - efficient recall behaviour [3] Selective attention - knowing which information to process (i.e., encode) Automatization[1] Automatization. Processes vary in how much attention they require Automatization is necessary if we are to develop - too much information to process consciously/every timeDoes this change developmentally? Single-digit addition problems - begin by counting (e.g.,) fingers - after 2-3 years, more likely to use retrieval (i.e., store of number facts to draw upon) - e.g., 3 + 6 = 9 - makes more complex problems easier- e.g., 3 + 6 +7 = 9 + 7 = 16Memory & OrganizationRetrieval of memorized information is more efficient if data is ‘organized’e.g., Word list to remember: Apple Sofa Dog Rat Banana Chair Cow Orange TableMemory & OrganizationRetrieval of memorized information is more efficient if data is ‘organized’e.g., Word list to remember: Apple Sofa Dog Rat Banana Chair Cow Orange Table10-year-olds more likely than 6-year-olds to organize items into categoriesin order to recalle.g., ‘Furniture’ ‘Animals’ ‘Fruit’(Carr et al., 1989)Selective AttentionSo far....Children’s processing of information benefits from ‘automatization’ i.e., the storing of certain facts eases the cognitive burdenRetrieval of information also benefits if retrieval strategies are organized i.e., don’t search through total ‘problem space’ for each itemWhat about reducing the amount of information processed in the first place?Selective AttentionDeMarie Dreblow & Miller (1988)Children shown 12 boxes - 6 with pictures of houses on the front [A] - 6 with pictures of a cage on the front [B][A] contain household objects[B] contain toy animalsSelective AttentionDeMarie Dreblow & Miller (1988) Children told they will need to remember either: [1] where the animals are [2] where the household objects areStudy period (to help you remember where your items are)Strategy? [1] Open only relevant boxes [2] Open mainly relevant boxes (but some non-relevant) [3] Open boxes randomlySelective AttentionDeMarie Dreblow & Miller (1988) The older children were - more likely to use strategy [1]. The younger children were - more likely to use strategy [3]8-years3-years% use[1] [2] [3]StrategyMetacognitive DevelopmentSo far: WM capacity increases - processing capacity increases Children’s memories become ‘automatized’ - retrieval of stored data aids problem solving Retrieval/recall becomes more organized Attention becomes more selective (i.e., targeted....’strategic’)Why?Metacognitive DevelopmentChildren learn to think about their thinking - develop ‘metacognitive’ skillsFlavell (1976) - children often fail to solve problems for which they possess the necessary solution - the key to success/efficiency is ‘metacognition’ or ‘metamemory’Metacognitive Development‘Meta’ development[1] recognize when the deliberate storage of info will be useful[2] appreciate that information will be needed in the future[3] understand that information must be rehearsed[4] learning to search for problem-relevant information when [1] [2] and/or [3] were not possibleMetamemory development = learning when, where and how to store information, and where, when and how to retrieve it.Metastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceKuhn & Pearsall (1998) Examined the relationship between [1] knowledge of task objectives [2] knowledge of strategiesMetastrategic functioning demands the coordination of [1] and [2]Metastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceSubjects = 10/11-year-olds worked for 7 weeks on problem.Model boats pulled by weight-and-pulley system Variables were: [1] Boat size [2] Sail size [3] Sail colour [4] Weight [5] Depth of waterMetastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceSubjects = 10/11-year-oldsModel boats pulled by weight-and-pulley system Variables were: [1] Boat size Causal effect [2] Sail size Irrelevant [3] Sail colour Irrelevant [4] Weight Causal effect on small boats only [5] Depth of water Medium/Deep = faster than shallowMetastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceSs chose boat/water depth ‘pairings’Task to ‘find out what makes a difference’Throughout study, Ss asked “What are you going to find out?” “What do you think the outcome will be?” “What have you found out?”Ss recorded findings in a notebook, over seven sessions (7 weeks)Metastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceMetastrategic knowledge assessed twice (Weeks 2 and 7)InterviewSubject introduced to new child“Please tell __ what you are supposed to do here”(i.e., assess children’s understanding of the task)“Can you explain to __ how you decide which ones (i.e., which variables) to investigate?(i.e., assess Ss understanding of which strategies to use)Metastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceTypes of metastrategic knowledge of taskFrom Level 0 (“just choose anything”) - NO OUTCOMEto Level 2 (“try different ones to see how fast they go”) - OUTCOMEand Level 4 (“compare a big heavy one and a small light one to see if it makes a difference”) - FEATURES INFLUENCE OUTCOMEto Level 6 (“change just the weight and see if it makes a difference”)- CONTROL INDIVIDUAL FEATURES TO ISOLATE CAUSAL EFFECT ON OUTCOMEMetastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceTypes of strategic performance on task Valid inference?Metastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceConclusions? Children with no metastrategic knowledge learn little - if anything - from the 7 sessions Children with partial meta-awareness of the task (i.e., levels 2 and 4) attain some strategic mastery, albeit not consistently. i.e., awareness that variables influence outcome insufficient without recognizing that variables must be isolated Most (75%) of children at level 6 attain consistent masteryMetastrategic Knowledge and Strategic PerformanceConclusions? [1] Metastrategic competence can be measured [2] Metastrategic competence and performance are associated[3] Strategic performance is visible..... but metastrategic understanding predicts whether and when strategies are appliedNext TimeChildren as ‘scientific thinkers’ - the road to adult cognitionNext WeekRule-use- Siegler’s ‘overlapping waves’ model of cognitive development - Information-processing constraints on rule-useReadingEssentialTowse, J. N., Hitch, G. J., & Hutton, U. (1998). A reevaluation of working memory capacity in children. Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 195 - 217. Available on Science Direct.BackgroundBerk, L. (2004). Development Through the Lifespan. (pp. 287 - 293).Cole, M., & Cole, S. (1996). The Development of Children.Eysenck, M. W. (2004). Psychology: an international perspective (pp. 543 - 545). Hove: Psychology Press.Richardson, K., & Sheldon, S. (Eds.). (1988). Cognitive development to adolescence (Chapter 9). Hove: LEA.
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