CHAPTER 1

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  CHAPTER 1   INTRODUCTION   1.1   Background of the Study  Language is very important in our lives. People at least use one language to convey and express their ideas, desire and feelings through communication process with others. As Chaer and Leony state that by language one can talk woth others, express his desires,his feeling and his ideas (Chaer and Leony, 1995:22). Language is also a social phenomenon. It is a means of communication between individuals and brings them into relationship with enviroment (Boey, 1975:3). So, language and society are two things, which are inseparable. They have close realationship since each other support another. Kartomiharjo states that a society dwelling in a certain region is generally divisible into smaller groups. They formed by ethnic, profession, religion, ideology, socio-economic,education and others (1988:3-4). Those variables create varieties of language such as language used by teachers, student, farmers, or gangster. Each of them has certain characteristic differentiating one from others, Gumperz in Gigliogi state that people tend to use their own terminology in-group communication and themajority language for interaction with considers. Beside that, some varieties of language are also caused by age, sex and occupation, and function (Wardaugh, 1997:219-220). As cook and suter state in Wibisono, age, sex, ethnic affiliation and profession or occupations also affect theway people to talk (2003:12). Dealing with age, there are language varieties used by the youth as phase of transition from childhood to adulthood, may lead to the term “identity“ to be taken into consideration (silvy, 2001). They create their own language to show their identity. Beside that, they use it to make the outsider my not understand it. They tend to use informal style rather than formal one because it creates the situation sound friendly in communication.  A form of informal style that is usually used by theyouth is slang. According to Hartman and Stork in Alwasilah state that slang is :  A variety of speech chareterized by newly coined and rapidly changing Vocabulary, used by the young or by social and proffesional groups for ‘in group‘communication and thus tending to prevent understanding By the rest of the speech community ( 1990:57). Pei and Gaynor add that slang is a style of language in fairly common use, produced by popular adaptation and extension of the meaning of existing words by coining new words with disregard scholastic standard and linguistic principles of the formation words. As the Gay Community of Malang something hidden behind the Gay cheerful appearance, they have a typical style, Own social attitude, Culture and history protest or even politics and religion (Nadjib, 1986). Some time if you heard what they are talking about, you seemed to be confused to catch it, caused it seemed that they are make, mixed or maybe interfered with another word. These are theexample as consideration :     Sayonara lapangan bola nih. Saya lapar baget nih. (I am very hungry)    Kenapose sih . . . adindah yang luncang ? Kenapa sih . . . . ada yang lucu ? (why . . . it is funny ? )    Kamuflase mawar duane atau sastra ? Kamu mau dua atau satu ? (Do you want one or two ? )    Hai . . . apose kabaret bow ? Hai . . . apa kabar broe ? ( Hy . . . how are you guys ) The example generalized that themember of Gay posses their own language variety that is slang, the outsiders will have difficulty in catching and understanding the sense if these language, the secret code as sayonara lapangan bola nih may means nothing for other people, but the member of Gay community understand the meaning of it, because this code used as means of communication scretly between themember. Gay deals with some aspect like : society, music and urbanities phenomenon. They gather at sidewalks, department stores entrances,salon, beach, train station ta night, art communicaties and other place that they easily be seen. A little bit explanations for all the reader especially sociolinguistic observes that not all of Gay community live style is bad, sometimes is good, event for outsider of Gay community. The study of sociolinguistics, especially in thefield of informal style is very exciting, it is because thetendency for speakers to use informal style to create situation sound friendly and closer. In everyday live communication among members of society prefer to use informal rather than formal one. Based on thephenomenon above, thestudy is intended to reveal theslang of surabaya punk society, which reflects thevariety of codes spreading in thespeech society they tend to be bilingualism, by using their own idiom for in-group communication. Even though this language is dynamic and it can be changes, it should be well documented and it should be well studied. 1.2   Statement of the problem  Based on the background of study, the problems are formulated as follow: 1. What slang words does the Malang of Gay community employ ? 2. In what social context do they use the slang words ? 3. Why does Malang Gay community use the slang word ? 1.3   Purpose of the Study  In accordance with the problem of the study, the objective are formulated as follows : 1. To identity the slang words employed by the Malang of Gay community.  2. To analyze the social context of the use slang words 3. To reveal the reason why they use slang words. 1.4   Significance of the Study  Based on the background of the study, the writer expect that the study will give a meaningful contribution to the sociolinguistic study and enlarge the view of the students of English Department, in particular, and for the sociolinguistic observes in general. 1.5   Scope and Limitation of the Study  The study refers to linguistics varitions, which exits in Malang. It is focused in aspect namely : 1.   Vocabulary items on some slang word charectirized Malang Gay community 2.   The social context of slang usage The reasons of the slang usage 1.6 Definition of Key Terms  Some items of terminology are defined in order to avoid misinterpretation : 1.   Slang is part of casual, informal styles of language use. It is often perceived as low or vulgar of language and is deemed to be out of place in formals styles of language (Nirmalasari,1988:144). Gay is youth rebellion in theextremes.With their spiked hair,Graceful, always like fragrant, soft hair, cool, perfect,feminim, in character like a women, Outlandishly cutomized, and much published obscene Language, Gay tried to show themselves off from thesociety and also to shock society into action (Chamberlain, 1995). CHAPTER II   REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE   2.1 The Field of Sociolinguistics  The recognition of the importance of the relationship between language and society has led to the growth of sociolinguistics is a study of language in relation to society (Holmes, 1980:1). The same idea stated by Holmes (2001:1) that sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society. It explains why we speak differently in different social context, and concerns with identifying the social function of language and the ways it are used to convey social context provides a wealth of information about the way language works, as well as about the social relationships it a community and the way people signal aspects of their social identity through their language. Futhermore, he claims that in any situation, linguistics choices will generally reflect the influence of social factors. They are : 1. The participant : who is speaking ? and whom are they speaking to ? the participant refer to theusers of language. For example : wife-husband, boss-worker, customer   –  shop-keeper. 2. The setting or social context of the interaction : where are they speaking ? for example : home, work, school and so on. 3. The topic : what is being talked about 4. The function : why are they speaking ? (Hudson, 1980:15) While Dell Hymes (1972) in Chaer and Leony (1995: 62- 64) describes the components of the social context in communication taken from the acronym of SPEAKING as follows : S (=Setting and Scene). Setting is related to the time and palace in which the utterance appears and scene is related to the situation of the time or place and the psycological situation of communi cation. P (=Participants). It refers to person involved in communication such as speaker, listener, addresser, and addressee in conveying ( the message).  E (=Ends: purpose and goal). It refers to the objective and the purpose of the utterance.  A (= Act Sequensces). It refers to the form and the content of the utterance. K (=Key : tone or spirit of act). It refers to how intention and the way the utterance are applied, such as happily, proudly, and so on. I (=Instrumentality’s). It refers to code of utterance used such as language, dialect, and register. It also refers to the form of language used both as spoken and written language through telegraph or telephone. N (=Norm of interaction and interpretation). It refers to the norm ot the role if interaction, such as the norm that related with asking, or interruption. G (= Genre). It is related to the form of utterance as poem, argument, prayer, and so on. Fishman in Giglioli explains that sociolinguistics examines theinteraction of the two aspect of human behavior : the use of language and social organization behavior ( 1972:45-58 ). Chaika, on the other hand, states that sociolinguistics study of the way people use language in social interaction.  According to bell sociolinguistics is the relatively new approach with in linguistics to the description of variation in language (Marjohan,1988:5). Sociolinguistics has shown systematic correlations between variation in linguistics form (phonological, morphological, syntactic) and social variabels the social strata to which speaker belong, social relationship between participants in linguistics interactions, differences in social setting or occasion, differences of topic, and so on (Faircloug, 1989:7).While fishmen (1972:4) states that sociolinguistics in the study of the characteristics of language varieties, the charateristics of their function, and the charateristics of their speaker as the three constantly interact, change, change one another with in a speech community. 2.1   Speech Community  Speech community is a group of people who can all understand each other when they speak (Corder, 1973:50). They are usually in the same area, speaking the variant of a language, or the same standard language (Hartman and Stork, 1972:215). While Hymes and Halliday (1972) states that thespeech community as a group of people who feel them self to be a community in some sense, rather than a group which only the linguist and outsider could know about (in Hudson. 1980:26).  According to fishman speech community is one, all of those members share at least a single speech variety and the norms for its appropriate use. A speech community may be, as small as a single closed interaction network, all of whose members regard each other in but a single capacity (Nirmalasari excerpted Wibisono,2002). The speech community is not defined by any marked agreement in the use of language elements, so much as by participation in a set of shared norms, these norms may be observed in overt types of evaluative and by the uniformity of abstract patterns of variation, which are invariant in respect to partcular levels of usage (Labov, 1972:120). Speech community is any human aggregate characterized by reguler and frequent interaction by means of a shared body of verbal signs and set off from similar aggregates by significant differences in language use (Gumperz, 1972:129). 2.2   Language  Language is a means of establishing and maintaining relationship with other people. It is a purely human and non- instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions, and desires, by means of a system of voluntarily produces symbols (Spair in Alwasilah, 1990:7). By language one can talk with other, express their desires, his feeling, and his ideas (Chaer and Leony, 1995:22). Language as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols which permit a people in a given culture, or other people who have then a system of that culture, to communicate or to interact (Finochiaro, 1986:75). We use language to ask for and give people information. We use it to express indignation and annoyance, as well as admiration and respect. Often one utterance will simulataneously convert both information and expresses feeling (Holmes, 2001:2). As a social structure and value system o society, different dialects and accents are evaluated in different way (Trudgill, 1974:19 ). 2.4 Language Variation  
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