ASTM A500 Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds Ans Shapes

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ASTM A500 Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds Ans Shapes
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  Designation: A500/A500M − 13 Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel StructuralTubing in Rounds and Shapes 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation A500/A500M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon ( ´ ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. 1. Scope* 1.1 This specification covers cold-formed welded and seam-less carbon steel round, square, rectangular, or special shapestructural tubing for welded, riveted, or bolted construction of bridges and buildings, and for general structural purposes.1.2 This tubing is produced in both welded and seamlesssizes with a periphery of 88 in. [2235 mm] or less, and aspecified wall thickness of 0.875 in. [22 mm] or less. Grade Drequires heat treatment. N OTE  1—Products manufactured to this specification may not besuitable for those applications such as dynamically loaded elements inwelded structures, etc., where low-temperature notch-toughness propertiesmay be important. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, theSI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in eachsystem may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each systemshall be used independently of the other. Combining valuesfrom the two systems may result in non-conformance with thestandard. The inch-pound units shall apply unless the “M”designation of this specification is specified in the order.1.4 The text of this specification contains notes and foot-notes that provide explanatory material. Such notes andfootnotes, excluding those in tables and figures, do not containany mandatory requirements. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1  ASTM Standards: 2 A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for ShipmentA751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsA941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, RelatedAlloys, and Ferroalloys2.2  Military Standards: MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage 3 MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products, Preparation for Ship-ment and Storage 3 2.3  Federal Standards: Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment 3 Fed. Std. No. 183 Continuous Identification Marking of Ironand Steel Products 3 2.4  AIAG Standard: B-1 Bar Code Symbology Standard 4 3. Terminology 3.1  Definitions—  For definitions of terms used in thisspecification, refer to Terminology A941. 4. Ordering Information 4.1 Orders for material under this specification shall containinformation concerning as many of the following items as arerequired to describe the desired material adequately:4.1.1 Quantity (feet [metres] or number of lengths),4.1.2 Name of material (cold-formed tubing),4.1.3 Method of manufacture (seamless or welded),4.1.4 Grade (A, B, C, or D),4.1.5 Size (outside diameter and wall thickness for roundtubing, and outside dimensions and wall thickness for squareand rectangular tubing),4.1.6 Copper-containing steel (see Table 1), if applicable,4.1.7 Length (random, multiple, specific; see 11.3),4.1.8 End condition (see 16.3),4.1.9 Burr removal (see 16.3), 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.09 on Carbon Steel Tubular Products.Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2013. Published November 2013. Originallyapproved in 1964. Last previous edition approved in 2010 as A500/A500M–10a.DOI: 10.1520/A0500_A0500M-13. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For  Annual Book of ASTM Standards  volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website. 3 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS. 4 Available from Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG), 26200 Lahser Rd.,Suite 200, Southfield, MI 48033, http://www.aiag.org. *A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States 1 Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM   Licensee=Fluor Corp no FPPPV per administrator /2110503106, User=Puentes, Artur Not for Resale, 01/14/2014 14:57:56 MST No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS     -    -        `        `  ,  ,        `        `        `        `        `        `  ,        `  ,        `        `  ,  ,        `        `        `        `  ,  ,  ,        `        `        `        `        `  ,    -        `    -        `  ,  ,        `  ,  ,        `  ,        `  ,  ,        `    -    -    -  4.1.10 Certification (see Section 18), 4.1.11 ASTM specification designation and year of issue,4.1.12 End use,4.1.13 Special requirements, and4.1.14 Bar coding (see 19.3). 5. Process 5.1 The steel shall be made by one or more of the followingprocesses: basic-oxygen or electric-furnace.5.2 When steels of different grades are sequentially strandcast, the steel producer shall identify the resultant transitionmaterial and remove it using an established procedure thatpositively separates the grades. 6. Manufacture 6.1 The tubing shall be made by a seamless or weldingprocess.6.2 Welded tubing shall be made from flat-rolled steel bythe electric-resistance-welding process. The longitudinal butt joint of welded tubing shall be welded across its thickness insuch a manner that the structural design strength of the tubingsection is assured.6.3 The weld shall not be located within the radius of thecorners of any shaped tube unless specified by the purchaser. N OTE  2—Welded tubing is normally furnished without removal of theinside flash. 6.4 Except as required by 6.5, it shall be permissible for the tubing to be stress relieved or annealed.6.5 Grade D tubing shall be heat treated at a temperature of at least 1100 °F [590 °C] for one hour per inch [25 mm] of thickness. 7. Heat Analysis 7.1 Each heat analysis shall conform to the requirementsspecified in Table 1 for heat analysis. 8. Product Analysis 8.1 The tubing shall be capable of conforming to therequirements specified in Table 1 for product analysis.8.2 If product analyses are made, they shall be made usingtest specimens taken from two lengths of tubing from each lotof 500 lengths, or fraction thereof, or two pieces of flat-rolledstock from each lot of a corresponding quantity of flat-rolledstock. Methods and practices relating to chemical analysis shallbe in accordance with Test Methods, Practices, and Terminol-ogy A751. Such product analyses shall conform to the require- ments specified in Table 1 for product analysis.8.3 If both product analyses representing a lot fail toconform to the specified requirements, the lot shall be rejected.8.4 If only one product analysis representing a lot fails toconform to the specified requirements, product analyses shallbe made using two additional test specimens taken from the lot.Both additional product analyses shall conform to the specifiedrequirements or the lot shall be rejected. 9. Tensile Requirements 9.1 The material, as represented by the test specimen, shallconform to the requirements as to tensile properties prescribedin Table 2. 10. Flattening Test 10.1 The flattening test shall be made on round structuraltubing. A flattening test is not required for shaped structuraltubing.10.2 For welded round structural tubing, a test specimen atleast 4 in. [100 mm] in length shall be flattened cold betweenparallel plates in three steps, with the weld located 90° from theline of direction of force. During the first step, which is a testfor ductility of the weld, no cracks or breaks on the inside or TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements ElementComposition, %Grades A, B, andDGrade CHeatAnalysisProductAnalysisHeatAnalysisProductAnalysisCarbon, max A 0.26 0.30 0.23 0.27Manganese, max A 1.35 1.40 1.35 1.40Phosphorus, max 0.035 0.045 0.035 0.045Sulfur, max 0.035 0.045 0.035 0.045Copper, min B  0.20 0.18 0.20 0.18 A For each reduction of 0.01 percentage point below the specified maximum forcarbon, an increase of 0.06 percentage point above the specified maximum formanganese is permitted, up to a maximum of 1.50 % by heat analysis and 1.60 %by product analysis. B  If copper-containing steel is specified in the purchase order. TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements Round Structural TubingGrade A Grade B Grade C Grade DTensile strength, min, psi [MPa] 45 000 58 000 62 000 58 000[310] [400] [425] [400]Yield strength, min, psi [MPa] 33 000 42 000 46 000 36 000[230] [290] [315] [250]Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm], 25 A 23 B  21 C  23 B  min, % D  Shaped Structural TubingGrade A Grade B Grade C Grade DTensile strength, min, psi [MPa] 45 000 58 000 62 000 58 000[310] [400] [425] [400]Yield strength, min, psi [MPa] 39 000 46 000 50 000 36 000[270] [315] [345] [250]Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm], 25 A 23 B  21 C  23 B  min, % D A Applies to specified wall thicknesses ( t   ) equal to or greater than 0.120 in. [3.05mm]. For lighter specified wall thicknesses, the minimum elongation values shallbe calculated by the formula: percent elongation in 2 in. [50 mm] = 56 t   + 17.5,rounded to the nearest percent. ForA500M use the following formula: 2.2 t   + 17.5,rounded to the nearest percent. B  Applies to specified wall thicknesses ( t   ) equal to or greater than 0.180 in. [4.57mm]. For lighter specified wall thicknesses, the minimum elongation values shallbe calculated by the formula: percent elongation in 2 in. [50 mm] = 61 t   + 12,rounded to the nearest percent. For A500M use the following formula: 2.4 t   + 12,rounded to the nearest percent. C  Applies to specified wall thicknesses ( t   ) equal to or greater than 0.120 in. [3.05mm]. For lighter specified wall thicknesses, the minimum elongation values shallbe by agreement with the manufacturer. D  The minimum elongation values specified apply only to tests performed prior toshipment of the tubing. A500/A500M − 13 2 Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM   Licensee=Fluor Corp no FPPPV per administrator /2110503106, User=Puentes, Artur Not for Resale, 01/14/2014 14:57:56 MST No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``,,``````,`,``,,````,,,`````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---  outside surfaces of the test specimen shall be present until thedistance between the plates is less than two-thirds of thespecified outside diameter of the tubing. For the second step,no cracks or breaks on the inside or outside parent metalsurfaces of the test specimen, except as provided for in 10.5,shall be present until the distance between the plates is lessthan one-half of the specified outside diameter of the tubing.During the third step, which is a test for soundness, theflattening shall be continued until the test specimen breaks orthe opposite walls of the test specimen meet. Evidence of laminated or unsound material or of incomplete weld that isrevealed during the entire flattening test shall be cause forrejection.10.3 For seamless round structural tubing 2 3  ⁄  8  in. [60 mm]specified outside diameter and larger, a specimen not less than2 1  ⁄  2  in. [65 mm] in length shall be flattened cold betweenparallel plates in two steps. During the first step, which is a testfor ductility, no cracks or breaks on the inside or outsidesurfaces, except as provided for in 10.5, shall occur until the distance between the plates is less than the value of “H”calculated by the following equation:  H  5 ~ 1 1 e ! t   /  ~ e 1 t   /   D !  (1) where:  H   = distance between flattening plates, in. [mm], e  = deformation per unit length (constant for a given gradeof steel, 0.09 for Grade A, 0.07 for Grade B, and 0.06for Grade C), t   = specified wall thickness of tubing, in. [mm], and  D  = specified outside diameter of tubing, in. [mm].During the second step, which is a test for soundness, theflattening shall be continued until the specimen breaks or theopposite walls of the specimen meet. Evidence of laminated orunsound material that is revealed during the entire flatteningtest shall be cause for rejection.10.4 Surface imperfections not found in the test specimenbefore flattening, but revealed during the first step of theflattening test, shall be judged in accordance with Section 15.10.5 When low  D -to- t   ratio tubulars are tested, because thestrain imposed due to geometry is unreasonably high on theinside surface at the 6 and 12 o’clock locations, cracks at theselocations shall not be cause for rejection if the  D -to- t   ratio isless than 10. 11. Permissible Variations in Dimensions 11.1  Outside Dimensions: 11.1.1  Round Structural Tubing—  The outside diameter shallnot vary more than  6 0.5 %, rounded to the nearest 0.005 in.[0.1 mm], from the specified outside diameter for specifiedoutside diameters 1.900 in. [48 mm] and smaller, and 6 0.75 %, rounded to the nearest 0.005 in. [0.1 mm], from thespecified outside diameter for specified outside diameters 2.00in. [5 cm] and larger. The outside diameter measurements shallbe made at positions at least 2 in. [5 cm] from the ends of thetubing.11.1.2  Square and Rectangular Structural Tubing—  The out-side dimensions, measured across the flats at positions at least2 in. [5 cm] from the ends of the tubing, shall not vary from thespecified outside dimensions by more than the applicableamount given in Table 3, which includes an allowance for convexity or concavity.11.2  Wall Thickness—  The minimum wall thickness at anypoint of measurement on the tubing shall be not more than10 % less than the specified wall thickness. The maximum wallthickness, excluding the weld seam of welded tubing, shall benot more than 10 % greater than the specified wall thickness.For square and rectangular tubing, the wall thickness require-ments shall apply only to the centers of the flats.11.3  Length—  Structural tubing is normally produced inrandom lengths 5 ft [1.5 m] and over, in multiple lengths, andin specific lengths. Refer to Section 4. When specific lengthsare ordered, the length tolerance shall be in accordance withTable 4.11.4  Straightness—  The permissible variation for straight-ness of structural tubing shall be  1  ⁄  8  in. times the number of feet [10 mm times the number of metres] of total length dividedby 5.11.5  Squareness of Sides—  For square and rectangular struc-tural tubing, adjacent sides shall be square (90°), with apermissible variation of  6 2° max.11.6  Radius of Corners—  For square and rectangular struc-tural tubing, the radius of each outside corner of the sectionshall not exceed three times the specified wall thickness.11.7  Twist—  For square and rectangular structural tubing,the permissible variations in twist shall be as given in Table 5.Twist shall be determined by holding one end of the tubingdown on a flat surface plate, measuring the height that eachcorner on the bottom side of the tubing extends above thesurface plate near the opposite ends of the tubing, andcalculating the twist (the difference in heights of such corners),except that for heavier sections it shall be permissible to use asuitable measuring device to determine twist. Twist measure-ments shall not be taken within 2 in. [5 cm] of the ends of thetubing. TABLE 3 Permissible Variations in Outside Flat Dimensions forSquare and Rectangular Structural Tubing Specified Outside Large Flat Dimension,in. [mm]Permissible VariationsOver and Under SpecifiedOutside Flat Dimensions, A in. [mm]2 1  ⁄  2  [65] or under 0.020 [0.5]Over 2 1  ⁄  2  to 3 1  ⁄  2  [65 to 90], incl 0.025 [0.6]Over 3 1  ⁄  2  to 5 1  ⁄  2  [90 to 140], incl 0.030 [0.8]Over 5 1  ⁄  2  [140] 0.01 times large flatdimension A The permissible variations include allowances for convexity and concavity. Forrectangular tubing having a ratio of outside large to small flat dimension less than1.5, and for square tubing, the permissible variations in small flat dimension shallbe identical to the permissible variations in large flat dimension. For rectangulartubing having a ratio of outside large to small flat dimension in the range of 1.5 to3.0 inclusive, the permissible variations in small flat dimension shall be 1.5 timesthe permissible variations in large flat dimension. For rectangular tubing having aratio of outside large to small flat dimension greater than 3.0, the permissiblevariations in small flat dimension shall be 2.0 times the permissible variations inlarge flat dimension. A500/A500M − 13 3 Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM   Licensee=Fluor Corp no FPPPV per administrator /2110503106, User=Puentes, Artur Not for Resale, 01/14/2014 14:57:56 MST No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --` `   ,  ,` ` ` ` ` `   ,`   ,` `   ,  ,` ` ` `   ,  ,  ,` ` ` ` `   ,-` -`   ,  ,`   ,  ,`   ,`   ,  ,` ---  12. Special Shape Structural Tubing 12.1 The availability, dimensions, and tolerances of specialshape structural tubing shall be subject to inquiry and negotia-tion with the manufacturer. 13. Number of Tests 13.1 One tension test as specified in Section 15 shall bemade from a length of tubing representing each lot.13.2 The flattening test, as specified in Section 10, shall be made on one length of round tubing from each lot.13.3 The term “lot” shall apply to all tubes of the samespecified size that are produced from the same heat of steel. 14. Retests 14.1 If the results of the mechanical tests representing anylot fail to conform to the applicable requirements specified inSections 9 and 10, the lot shall be rejected or retested using additional tubing of double the srcinal number from the lot.The lot shall be acceptable if the results of all such retestsrepresenting the lot conform to the specified requirements.14.2 If one or both of the retests specified in 14.1 fail toconform to the applicable requirements specified in Sections 9and 10, the lot shall be rejected or, subsequent to the manu- facturer heat treating, reworking, or otherwise eliminating thecondition responsible for the failure, the lot shall be treated asa new lot and tested accordingly. 15. Test Methods 15.1 Tension test specimens shall conform to the applicablerequirements of Test Methods and Definitions A370, Annex A2.15.2 Tension test specimens shall be full–size longitudinaltest specimens or longitudinal strip test specimens. For weldedtubing, any longitudinal strip test specimens shall be takenfrom a location at least 90° from the weld and shall be preparedwithout flattening in the gage length. Longitudinal strip testspecimens shall have all burrs removed. Tension test specimensshall not contain surface imperfections that would interferewith proper determination of the tensile properties.15.3 The yield strength corresponding to an offset of 0.2 %of the gage length or to a total extension under load of 0.5 %of the gage length shall be determined. 16. Inspection 16.1 All tubing shall be inspected at the place of manufac-ture to ensure conformance to the requirements of this speci-fication.16.2 All tubing shall be free from defects and shall have aworkmanlike finish.16.2.1 Surface imperfections shall be classed as defectswhen their depth reduces the remaining wall thickness to lessthan 90 % of the specified wall thickness. It shall be permis-sible for defects having a depth not in excess of 33 1  ⁄  3  % of thespecified wall thickness to be repaired by welding, subject tothe following conditions:16.2.1.1 The defect shall be completely removed by chip-ping or grinding to sound metal,16.2.1.2 The repair weld shall be made using a low-hydrogen welding process, and16.2.1.3 The projecting weld metal shall be removed toproduce a workmanlike finish.16.2.2 Surface imperfections such as handling marks, lightdie or roll marks, or shallow pits are not considered defectsprovided that the imperfections are removable within thespecified limits on wall thickness. The removal of such surfaceimperfections is not required. Welded tubing shall be free of protruding metal on the outside surface of the weld seam.16.3 Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order,structural tubing shall be furnished with square cut ends, withthe burr held to a minimum. When so specified in the purchaseorder, the burr shall be removed on the outside diameter, insidediameter, or both. 17. Rejection 17.1 It shall be permissible for the purchaser to inspecttubing received from the manufacturer and reject any tubingthat does not meet the requirements of this specification, basedupon the inspection and test methods outlined herein. Thepurchaser shall notify the manufacturer of any tubing that hasbeen rejected, and the disposition of such tubing shall besubject to agreement between the manufacturer and the pur-chaser.17.2 It shall be permissible for the purchaser to set aside anytubing that is found in fabrication or installation within thescope of this specification to be unsuitable for the intended enduse, based on the requirements of this specification. Thepurchaser shall notify the manufacturer of any tubing that hasbeen set aside. Such tubing shall be subject to mutual investi-gation as to the nature and severity of the deficiency and theforming or installation, or both, conditions involved. Thedisposition of such tubing shall be subject to agreementbetween the manufacturer and the purchaser. TABLE 4 Length Tolerances for Specific Lengths of StructuralTubing 22 ft [6.5 m]and UnderOver 22ft [6.5 m]Over Under Over UnderLength tolerance for specificlengths, in. [mm] 1  ⁄  2 [13] 1  ⁄  4 [6] 3  ⁄  4 [19] 1  ⁄  4 [6] TABLE 5 Permissible Variations in Twist for Square andRectangular Structural Tubing Specified Outside LargeFlat Dimension, in. [mm]Maximum PermissibleVariations in Twistper 3 ft of Length[Twist per Metre of Length]in. [mm]1 1  ⁄  2  [40] and under 0.050 [1.3]Over 1 1  ⁄  2  to 2 1  ⁄  2  [40 to 65], incl 0.062 [1.6]Over 2 1  ⁄  2  to 4 [65 to 100], incl 0.075 [1.9]Over 4 to 6 [100 to 150], incl 0.087 [2.2]Over 6 to 8 [150 to 200], incl 0.100 [2.5]Over 8 [200] 0.112 [2.8] A500/A500M − 13 4 Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM   Licensee=Fluor Corp no FPPPV per administrator /2110503106, User=Puentes, Artur Not for Resale, 01/14/2014 14:57:56 MST No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``,,``````,`,``,,````,,,`````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
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