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Linguistics as a Tool for Discourse Analysis -The science of linguistics concerns itself with discovering, describing and (where relevant) explaining (1) the units of linguistic form or content, (2) the structures or patterns in which these units are defined and situated, (3) the roles or functions that these units serve in these structures, and (4) the dependencies or interpretive links that obtain between different units in the same text Since some of the units I speak of provide the substance
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  L inguistics as a Tool for Discourse Analysis -The science of linguistics concerns itself with discovering, describing and(where relevant) explaining (1) the units of linguistic form or content, (2) thestructures or patterns in which these units are defined and situated, (3) theroles or functions that these units serve in these structures, and (4) thedependencies or interpretive links that obtain between different units in thesame text Since some of the units I speak of provide the substance, or makeup the constituents, of higher-level units, we find that we can speak of units,roles, structures, and intratextual connections at many levels in thedescription of a language and in the description of texts. Among theintertextual relations are those which hold between ♣ a given unit and other units that are structurally mutually substitutableand those which hold between ♣ a given unit and other units that can be thought of as coming from thesame repertory or linguistic domain as the observed unit. ♣ Relations of types 1 and 2 may be spoken of as relations of 'alternativity' ♣ and 'association', respectively, the vagueness and boundarylessness of thelatter not unintended.Intratextual relations are those that hold between ♣ a given unit in a text and a larger unit of which it can be seen as a part, ♣ a given unit in a text and its companions or co-constituents, ·that is, theother units found in its containing structure,or between ♣ a given unit in a text and other units in the same text with which it holdsthe relation of obligatory or potential co-interpretation.With respect to extratextuality we can distinguish ♣ the world within which the text is produced, or what I have elsewherecalled the text-external worldand ♣ the world whose properties the text represents, the text-internal world.-Divisions of linguistics:Phonology: knowledge of allowed phonetic sequences is used when one closes or creates expectation chains in speech perception.Grammar and Lexicogrammatical categories: Know1edge of category contrasts amonginflected forms of words participates in the recognition of operating grammaticalcategories and thus in the recognition of grammatical structures.Semantics and the Lexicon: Knowledge of contrast sets and the various other kinds of semantic relations studied in lexical semantics makes it possible to bring into the  interpretation of a text the entire framework within which the related lexical items havetheir motivated existence.Pragmatics and Text Linguistics: Knowledge of the principles of conversationalcooperation lead to questions, expectations, and conclusions about illocutionary force.LA BOHEME Background Information What we know about the text-external world of our synopsis is that it is to be read by people who are about to see an opera, and that most of the people who read it are doingso in order to make sure that they will know what is happening on the stage and whatthe people on the stage are singing about. First Mention Since the table identifying the cast in any particular performance generally gives only,the names of the characters, it is usually up to the text of the synopsis to identify thecharacters' roles or professions. Informing via Presupposition Throughout the text we find instances of information that is introduced by way of  presuppositions-through the back door, so to speak. He uses the term presupposition informally, referring merely to uses of language that suggest that some of theinformation it communicates is seen as taken for granted rather than being conveyed asfresh information. Reading between the Lines In a great many places throughout the text, understanding by implicature, or reading between the lines, is necessary. Point of View The fact that the text reports what happens on the stage, before the audience’s eyes,determines the selection of point of view for the writer and reader.
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