002 List of Lit Device

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Adventure novel. A novel where exciting events are more important than character development and sometimes theme. Examples: ã ã ã ã H. Rider Haggard, King Solomon's Mines Baroness Orczy, The Scarlet Pimpernel Alexandre Dumas, The Three Musketeers Alexandre Dumas, The Count of Monte Cristo Allegory. A figurative work in which a surface narrative carries a secondary, symbolic or metaphorical meaning. In The Faerie Queene, for example, Red Cross Knight is a heroic knight in the literal narrative,
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  Adventure novel. A novel where exciting events are more important than character development and sometimes theme. Examples: ã H. Rider Haggard,  King Solomon's Mines ã Baroness Orczy, The Scarlet Pimpernel  ã Alexandre Dumas, The Three Musketeers ã Alexandre Dumas, The Count of Monte Cristo Allegory. A figurative work in which a surface narrative carries a secondary, symbolic or metaphorical meaning. In The Faerie Queene , for example, Red Cross Knight is a heroicknight in the literal narrative, but also a figure representing Everyman in the Christian journey. Many works contain allegories or are allegorical in part, but not many areentirely allegorical. A good example of a fully allegorical work is ã Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene Apologue. A moral fable, usually featuring personified animals or inanimate objectswhich act like people to allow the author to comment on the human condition. Often, theapologue highlights the irrationality of mankind. The beast fable, and the fables of Aesopare examples. Some critics have called Samuel Johnson's  Rasselas an apologue rather than a novel because it is more concerned with moral philosophy than with character or  plot. Examples: ã George Orwell,  Animal Farm ã Rudyard Kipling, The Jungle Book  Autobiographical novel. A novel based on the author's life experience. Many novelistsinclude in their books people and events from their own lives because remembrance iseasier than creation from scratch. Examples: ã James Joyce,  Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man ã Thomas Wolfe,  Look Homeward, Angel  Blank Verse. Unrhymed iambic pentameter. Burlesque. A work designed to ridicule a style, literary form, or subject matter either bytreating the exalted in a trivial way or by discussing the trivial in exalted terms (that is,with mock dignity). Burlesque concentrates on derisive imitation, usually in exaggeratedterms. Literary genres (like the tragic drama) can be burlesqued, as can styles of sculpture, philosophical movements, schools of art, and so forth. See Parody, Travesty . Caesura. A pause, metrical or rhetorical, occurring somewhere in a line of poetry. The pause may or may not be typographically indicated. Canon. In relation to literature, this term is half-seriously applied to those worksgenerally accepted as the great ones. A battle is now being fought to change or throw out  the canon for three reasons. First, the list of great books is thoroughly dominated byDWEM's (dead, white, European males), and the accusation is that women and minoritiesand non-Western cultural writers have been ignored. Second, there is pressure in theliterary community to throw out all standards as the nihilism of the late 20th centurymakes itself felt in the literature departments of the universities. Scholars and professorswant to choose the books they like or which reflect their own ideas, without worryingabout canonicity. Third, the canon has always been determined at least in part by politicalconsiderations and personal philosophical biases. Books are much more likely to becalled great if they reflect the philosophical ideas of the critic. Children's novel. A novel written for children and discerned by one or more of these: (1)a child character or a character a child can identify with, (2) a theme or themes (oftendidactic) aimed at children, (3) vocabulary and sentence structure available to a youngreader. Many adult novels, such as Gulliver's Travels, are read by children. The test isthat the book be interesting to and--at some level--accessible by children. Examples: ã Mark Twain, Tom Sawyer  ã L. M. Montgomery,  Anne of Green Gables Christian novel. A novel either explicitly or implicitly informed by Christian faith andoften containing a plot revolving around the Christian life, evangelism, or conversionstories. Sometimes the plots are directly religious, and sometimes they are allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most Christian novels have been viewed as having less literaryquality than the great novels of Western literature. Examples: ã Charles Sheldon,  In His Steps ã Lloyd C. Douglas, The Robe ã Henryk Sienkiewicz, Quo Vadis ã Par Lagerkvist,  Barabbas ã Catherine Marshall, Christy ã C. S. Lewis,  Perelandra ã G. K. Chesterton, The Man Who was Thursday ã Bodie Thoene,  In My Father's House Coming-of-age story. A type of novel where the protagonist is initiated into adulthoodthrough knowledge, experience, or both, often by a process of disillusionment.Understanding comes after the dropping of preconceptions, a destruction of a false senseof security, or in some way the loss of innocence. Some of the shifts that take place arethese: ã ignorance to knowledge ã innocence to experience ã false view of world to correct view ã idealism to realism ã immature responses to mature responses  Example: ã Jane Austen  Northanger Abbey Conceit. An elaborate, usually intellectually ingenious poetic comparison or image, suchas an analogy or metaphor in which, say a beloved is compared to a ship, planet, etc. Thecomparison may be brief or extended. See Petrarchan Conceit . (Conceit is an old wordfor concept.) See John Donne's Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, for example: Letman's soul be a sphere, and then, in this, / The Intelligence that moves, devotion is. Detective novel. A novel focusing on the solving of a crime, often by a brilliantdetective, and usually employing the elements of mystery and suspense. Examples: ã Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Hound of the Baskervilles ã Agatha Christie, Murder on the Orient Express ã Dorothy Sayers, Strong Poison Dystopian novel. An anti-utopian novel where, instead of a paradise, everything hasgone wrong in the attempt to create a perfect society. See utopian novel. Examples: ã George Orwell,  Nineteen Eighty-Four  ã Aldous Huxley,  Brave New World  End-stopped. A line that has a natural pause at the end (period, comma, etc.). For example, these lines are end stopped:My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun.Coral is far more red than her lips red. --Shakespeare Enjambed. The running over of a sentence or thought into the next couplet or linewithout a pause at the end of the line; a run-on line. For example, the first two lines hereare enjambed:Let me not to the marriage of true mindsAdmit impediments. Love is not loveWhich alters when it alteration findsOr bends with the remover to remove. . . . --Shakespeare Epic. An extended narrative poem recounting actions, travels, adventures, and heroicepisodes and written in a high style (with ennobled diction, for example). It may bewritten in hexameter verse, especially dactylic hexameter, and it may have twelve booksor twenty four books. Characteristics of the classical epic include these: ã The main character or protagonist is heroically larger than life, often the sourceand subject of legend or a national hero ã The deeds of the hero are presented without favoritism, revealing his failings aswell as his virtues ã The action, often in battle, reveals the more-than-human strength of the heroes asthey engage in acts of heroism and courage ã The setting covers several nations, the whole world, or even the universe  ã The episodes, even though they may be fictional, provide an explanation for someof the circumstances or events in the history of a nation or people ã The gods and lesser divinities play an active role in the outcome of actions ã All of the various adventures form an organic whole, where each event relates insome way to the central themeTypical in epics is a set of conventions (or epic machinery). Among them are these: ã Poem begins with a statement of the theme ( Arms and the man I sing ) ã Invocation to the muse or other deity ( Sing, goddess, of the wrath of Achilles ) ã Story begins in medias res (in the middle of things) ã Catalogs (of participants on each side, ships, sacrifices) ã Histories and descriptions of significant items (who made a sword or shield, howit was decorated, who owned it from generation to generation) ã Epic simile (a long simile where the image becomes an object of art in its ownright as well as serving to clarify the subject). ã Frequent use of epithets ( Aeneas the true ; rosy-fingered Dawn ; tall-mastedship ) ã Use of patronymics (calling son by father's name): Anchises' son ã Long, formal speeches by important characters ã Journey to the underworld ã Use of the number three (attempts are made three times, etc.) ã Previous episodes in the story are later recountedExamples: ã Homer,  Iliad  ã Homer, Odyssey ã Virgil,  Aeneid  ã Tasso,  Jerusalem Delivered  ã Milton,  Paradise Lost  Epistolary novel. A novel consisting of letters written by a character or severalcharacters. The form allows for the use of multiple points of view toward the story andthe ability to dispense with an omniscient narrator. Examples: ã Samuel Richardson,  Pamela ã Samuel Richardson, Clarissa ã Fanny Burney,  Evelina ã C. S. Lewis, The Screwtape Letters ã Hannah W. Foster, The Coquette Euphemism. The substitution of a mild or less negative word or phrase for a harsh or  blunt one, as in the use of pass away instead of die. The basic psychology of euphemistic language is the desire to put something bad or embarrassing in a positive (or at least neutral light). Thus many terms referring to death, sex, crime, and excremental
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