The power of the three words and one acronym: OER vs OER

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Presentation at conference, Malta, 6-9 Feb 2014. It describes Romanian initiatives related to Open Educational Resources (OER). We refer to a national report developed by @cami13 under the umbrella of the European project POERUP, based on a documentary research and a field work research. Although the aim of this presentation is to focus on the state of the art of OER in Romanian education system, our goals are to promote a background of research about the use of OER in universities; to contribute to a better knowledge of teachers’ and students’ perception and practices on the use of OER in academic life; to suggest key aspects and make suggestions on how to integrate OER and MOOC in HE area. The Romanian Report can be found here: For more information about the POERUP project, go to see
  • 1. The power of the three words and one acronym: OER vs OER (I’m not an Ogre of the Enchanted Realm of cyberspace. I’m an Omnipresent Educational Rescuer - because I use the OER!) oral presentation by Carmen HOLOTESCU & Gabriela GROSSECK at 6th World Conference on Educational Sciences 06-09 February 2014, Malta photocredit:
  • 2. OER Definition UNESCO (2002) […] „the open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes.”
  • 3. What are OERs? Open Educational Resources „are any type of educational materials that are in the public domain or introduced with an open license. The nature of these open materials means that anyone can legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share them. OERs range from textbooks to curricula, syllabi, lecture notes, assignments, tests, projects, audio, video and animation.”
  • 4. Current Projects related to OER
  • 5. Open Education Europa Opening up education through new technologies „ICT tools, Open Educational Resources, and open practices allow for an increase in the effectiveness of education, allowing for more personalised learning, a better learning experience, and an improved use of resources. Such measures also promote equity by increasing the availability of knowledge. Ultimately, opening up education may lead to a situation where all individuals may learn anytime, anywhere, with the support of anyone, using any device.”
  • 6. SCALE CCR: Up-Scaling Creative Classrooms in Europe Main Outcomes: • A mapping framework of ICT-enabled innovation for learning • The Creative Classrooms concept and reference parameters • A set of policy recommendations for mainstreaming of systemic, ICT-enabled innovations in Education and Training (E&T).
  • 7. OEREU: Open Education Resources and Practices in Europe Specific objectives: • • • • • Study the sustainability and business models of OER and OEP initiatives Build a classification of OER initiatives and practices, and a detailed and critical assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Contribute to the analysis of the socio-economic impacts that OER and OEP can have on the education systems Implement a participatory foresight methodology, based on targeted stakeholder consultations, in order to develop visions and scenarios on the future of Open Education Derive policy recommendations
  • 8. POERUP: Policies for OER Uptake „POERUP is focused on filling the following two gaps in research: • The end-user–producer communities behind the OER initiatives and what (or who) it is that actually provides the energy that make OER initiatives work or not. At present there exists little experience in how to best support the communities behind these initiatives or what they actually want or do. • Policies that governments and agencies (international, national and regional) should adopt in order to best foster creation and uptake of OER.” „OER-based learning, seen as an extension of online education, provides opportunity for everyone to access high quality education at relatively low cost” (POERUP, 2013)
  • 9. OER Initiatives in Romania
  • 10. CCR was launched in September 2, 2008, with the help of ApTI (The Association for Technology and Internet)
  • 11. National OER initiatives • Knowledge based Economy Project OER educational policies (recommendations in 2007) • OER and OEP: The activities in the KEP project have led the schools towards a shift in focus from the resources themselves towards the practices associated with the creation, use and management of OER: that is, open educational practices (OEP). • OER in the Government Programme The Government Programme for 2013-2016 adopted in December 2012 ( specifies that Ministry of Communication and Ministry of Education will collaborate to support the innovative integration of Web2.0 and Open Educational Resources in education.
  • 12. Regional and institutional OER initiatives Related to FLOSS (Free / Libre / Open Source Software) • Groups • Conferences/Events • Courses / Trainings / Research • Linux distributions and Open Source projects development Related to OER, OEP and Open Content/Access Courses / Trainings / Programs Open Content / Open Access / Communities for OER and OEP Studies
  • 13. Open Educational Resources Framework (1) Are licensed under: (*) • various Creative Commons Licenses Are created using: • Collaborative applications • Open Source Software Are distributed on: • Specific directories/repositories/portals • Social Media platforms Cover: (*) • A large range of topics Are used at different educational levels: (*) • Pre-university • University • Adult Education • Personal Development/LLL • Informal Learning / Serendipity (?) • Smart Cities Are found using: • Specific search engines • Directories • Linked Data Are influenced/supported by policies/recommendations at different levels: (*) • UNESCO / global • European • National • Regional • Institutional Granularity: • Little (distributed on SM platforms, collections of digital assets: curricula, syllabi, assignments, tests projects) • Big (open online courses, open textbooks) • MOOCs Format: (*) • Text • Audio • Video • Multimedia • Simulations • Animations Assessed/evaluated by: (*) • Quality procedures • Peer-reviewing • User-driven models Proposed to evaluate OER Projects – dimensions marked with (*) are presented in (POERUP, 2013), the others are original.
  • 14. Open Educational Resources Framework (2) Use different patterns of: • Certification • Accreditation Enable / are connected with: • Open access • Open content • Open educational practices / open pedagogy / open collaboration • Mobile learning Require: • Teachers training / courses Have as verbs: • Create • Use • Adapt • Exchange • Share • Reuse • Collaborate • Personalize • Mix • Evaluate • Validate Are funded/financed by: (*) • Institutions • Foundations • Projects • Governments • Partnerships Are promoted by: • Case studies • Best practices • Research • Events/conferences/workshops • Communities of practice Foster: • Acquisition of specific competences needed by teachers and learners to adopt open educational practices • Lifelong learning and social inclusion Challenged by: • Low digital fluency of faculty • Relative lack of rewards for teaching (HR, 2014) Proposed to evaluate OER Projects – dimensions marked with (*) are presented in (POERUP, 2013), the others are original.
  • 15. From POERUP elevator pitch: 26 countries in 26 minutes, slide 11
  • 16. Strengths in Romanian OER initiatives Romania is active in the OER movement: • trainings/courses related to OER and OEP organized for both preuniversity and university sectors • proposals at governamental level, more for pre-university –not yet in formal politics. • national events related to open resources produced by preuniversity teachers; national guides were published also • directories with open resources more numerous for pre-university level • strong communities/events for OS and OD • proposals for MOOCs: at university level: Credis, UPT (Andone, 2014) and for LLL (Holotescu et al., 2013).
  • 17. • The educational content which already exists, mainly in AeL/SEI, should be used more intensive by teachers and students: connections with curricula, the skills they develop should be more clear; encourage and support the sharing of best practices; should be licenced under CC (*) • Create a repository with the educational projects in which Romanian schools, universities and educational organizations have participated, under CC licencies (*) • Public outputs from European Commission programs should be made open, for example using Creative Commons licenses (**) • Collaborations between schools and universities in regards to OER projects (**) (*) from Recommendations 2007 (**) from POERUP 2014 Recommendations (1)
  • 18. • • • • • • Partnership of Ministry of Education with publishers, broadcasters, libraries, cultural institutions to provide open access to their own resources (*) All teachers training programmes should contain topics related to OER, new licenses and tools to create educational materials in a collaborative manner (*) Encourage a competitive market for educational resources production, guarantee transparency of supply and equal opportunities to market actors; Define a set of quality criteria (*) Budgets for digital education should include money for developing and maintaining OER (**) OER should be allowed on approved materials lists (**) Encourage Europe-wide validation of learning acquired online (not only via OER and MOOCs) (**) Recommendations (2) (*) from Recommendations 2007 (**) from POERUP 2014
  • 19. Thank you for your attention! Carmen Holotescu Politehnica University Timisoara, Romania Twitter: @cami13 Gabriela Grosseck University of the West
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