Soviet Invasion of Manchuria In1945

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Soviet Invasion of Manchuria In 1945 Analyzing element of surprize
  MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of candidate~. __ A __ M _ _N __ _o __ _A_T_O_N_,_M_A __ _,_U __ A __ Ti t1 e of th esi s. __ T_H_E_S_O _VI_E_T_I_N_VA_S_I_O_N_O_F_MA_N_C_H_U_R_I_A_, _1_9_ 4 _5_:_ AN ANALYSIS OF THE ELEMENT OF SURPRISE Approved by: .ResearchAdvisor Member, Graduate Research Faculty ~~   ~~~~~, 0MMeemmbbeerr', Graduate Research Faculty ~~   Graduate Research Faculty Accepted this I~II   day of \:1... .. 1976 b~--,C;~~)   Director, Mast€r of Milit~t   and Science? The 0plnlons and conclusions expressed herein are those of the individualstudent author and do not necessarily repre- sent the views of either the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other governmental agency. (References to this study should include the foregoing statement.) ii  Accession Number: ADA030143 Citation Status: Active Citation Classification:UnclassifiedField(s) & Group(s): 150600 -MILITARY OPERATIONS, STRATEGY AND TACTICS Corporate Author: ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KANSUuclassified Title:The Soviet Invasion of Manchuria, 1945. Au Aualysis of the Element of Snrprise. Title Classificatiou:UnclassifiedDcseriptive Note:Fiual rept., Personal Author(s): Eaton,Harmon L. Report Date: 11 Jun 1976 Media Count: 196 Pagers)Cost:$14.60 Report Classification:Unclassified Descriptors: *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN),USSR, WARFARE, MILITARY DOCTRINE, THESES, JAPAN, HISTORY, MILITARY TACTICS Identifiers: Manchurian campaign Abstract: The study analyzes the Soviet invasion of Manchuria iu August 1945 emphasizing the role played by the element of surprise. The analysis shows how the Soviets applied slllprise against the Japanese at thesh·ategic, operational and tactical levels, how the character of the element of slllprise varied fromechelon to echelon; and how the outcome of the campaign reflected the results of surprise. Abstract Classification:Unclassified Distribution Limitatiou(s): 01 -APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Source Serial:F Source Code: 037260 Document Location:DTIC  ABSTRACT This study analyzes the Sovietinvasion of Manchuria in August 1945 emphasizing the role played by the element of surprise. The analysis shows how the Soviets applied sur prise against theJapanese at the strategic, operational and tactical levels; how the character of the element of surprise varied from echelon to echelon; and how the outcome of the campaign reflected the results of surprise. Since its beginning the Soviet Army has shown an awareness of surprise, which usually has been included as a basic principle of war by Western military writers from the time of Carl von Clausewitz to the present. Today, modern Soviet theorists, such as Colonel V. Ye. Savkin in his 1972 work Basic Principles of Operational Art and Tactics. con tinue to count surprise among the most important principles of war. In examining the Manchurian campaign at the strate- gic level, we find theattainment of surprise was taken into consideration both in the diplomatic arena and in high-level military planning for the campaign as a whole. Timing was especially critical. At the operational and tactical levels, . theSoviets made use of available naturalfactors, took elaborate precautions during their preparations for the invasion, and usedsuch innovative tactics as spearheading the iii  iv main attack with a tank army in a sector which included l'ol'nJi d:lh l l~   d<':~<\t'L   iltld r'U{':II':<'d mountainl,('r'r'c-tin. Th<' inva ~~ioll   war; I'u]:I.v utlPxpec ted, and when it came th(~   Japanc[;e Kwantung Army in Manchuria was totally unprepared to meet it. There is little doubt that surprise was a major con tributing factor in helping the Soviets achieve dramaticsuccess against the Japanese, and the campaign is a parti- cularly good example of how the Soviets translatetheir theory of military art into practice.
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