Process Models

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   PROCESS MODELS Assignment.1) WATERFALL MODEL 1)Waterfall model is a cascade SDLC model. )!n t is# de$elo%ment %rocess loo&s li&e t e flo'((mo$ing ste% * ste% t ro+g t e % ases of anal*sis# %ro,ecting# reali-ation# testing# im%lementation and s+%%ort. )!n 'aterfall model # one m+st %lan and sc ed+le all acti$ities efore strating 'or&ing on t em. /)T e % ases of 0T e Waterfall Model0 are Re2+irement anal*sis and design All re2+irements of t e s*stem ' ic as to e de$elo%ed are collected in t is ste%. Re2+irements a$e to e collected * anal*sing t e needs of t e c+stomer3 +sers and c ec&ing t em for $alidit* and t e %ossiilit* to im%lement t em. 4)S*stem DesignT e s*stem as to e %ro%erl* designed efore an* im%lementation is started. e soft'are com%onents a$e to e defined to meet t e end +ser re2+irements and to meet t e need of %ossilescalailit* of t e s*stem. 5)soft'are Design6ased on t e s*stem arc itect+re ' ic defines t e main soft'areloc&s t e soft'are design 'ill rea& t em f+rt er do'n into code mod+les. egstart+%# s +tdo'n# error conditions and diagnostic modes. 7)Coding 6ased on t e soft'are design doc+ment t e 'or& is aiming to set +% t e defined mod+les or +nits and act+al coding is started. T e s*stem is first de$elo%ed in smaller %ortions called +nits. Soft'are integration and 8erification Eac +nit is de$elo%ed inde%endentl*and can e tested for its f+nctionalit*. T is is t e 9):nit Testing. !t sim%l* $erifies if t e mod+les or +nits to c ec& if t e* meet t eir s%ecifications. S*stem $alidation After s+ccessf+ll* integration incl+ding t e related tests t e com%lete s*stem as to e tested against its initial re2+irements. ;)O%eration and maintenance T e s*stem is anded o$er to t e c+stomer#' o 'ill c ec& if is re2+irements 'ere im%lemented as e<%ected +t e 'ill also $alidate if t e correct re2+irements a$e een set +%. !n case t ere are c anges necessar* it as to e fi<edto ma&e t e s*stem +sale or to ma&e it com%l* to t e c+stomer 'is es. AD8A=TA>ES 1)T is model is sim%le and eas* to +nderstand# to im%lement# and +se. )!t a$oids o$erla%%ing of % ases eca+se eac % ase is com%leted at once. )All t e re2+irements are &no'n at t e eginning of t e %ro,ect# ence it is eas*to manage. /)T is model 'or&s for small %ro,ects ' ere t e re2+irements are easil* +nderstood. 4)e$er* % ase as a defined res+lt and %rocess re$ie'. 5)De$elo%ment stages go one * one. 7)Wor&s 'ell ' en 2+alit* is more im%ortant t en cost3sc ed+le. 9)C+stomers3End +sers alread* &no' ao+t it. D!SAD8A=TA>ES 1)!m%ortant t ings is to gat er all %ossile re2+irements d+ring t e first % ase of re2+irements collection and anal*sis. !f not all re2+irements are otained at once t e s+se2+ent % ases 'ill s+ffer from it.Realit* is t at onl* a %art of t e re2+irements is &no'n at t e eginning and a certain %ercentage 'ill e gat ered d+ring t e com%lete de$elo%ment time. )T e soft'are is read* onl* after t e last stage is o$er.   )not m+c s+itale for t e long(term %ro,ects. /)T e %rogress of t e stage is ard to meas+re ' ile it is still in t e de$elo%ment. 4)!n t is#t e c anges are not %ermitted so it is not fit for moderate to ig ris&c anges in %ro,ect. 5)T e %rolems 'it t is model are +nco$ered# +ntil t e soft'are testing. 7)T e amo+nt of ris& is ig .) SP!RAL MODEL 1)T e s%iral model is same as to t e incremental model# 'it more ig lig tingon ris& anal*sis. )T e model is di$ided in fo+r % ases Planning# Ris& Anal*sis# Engineering and E$al+ation )!t loo&s li&e a s%iral 'it man* loo%s. /)T e e<act n+mer of loo%s of t e s%iral is +n&no'n and can $ar* from %ro,ect to %ro,ect. 4)Eac loo% of t e s%iral is called a P ase of t e soft'are de$elo%ment %rocess. 5)E$er* % ase in t e S%iral model is start 'it a design goal and ends 'it t e client re$ie'. 7)Planning % aseT is % ase collects t e re2+irements for contin+o+s comm+nicationet'een t e c+stomer and s*stem anal*st. !t in$ol$es estimating t e cost and reso+rces for t e iteration. 9)Ris& Anal*sisT is % ase identifies t e ris& and %ro$ides t e alternate sol+tions if t e ris& is fo+nd. ;)Engineering % ase !n t is % ase# act+al de$elo%ment i.e coding of t e soft'are is com%leted. Testing is com%leted at t e end of t e % ase. 1?)E$al+ation % ase  in t is# soft'are gets e$al+ated * t e c+stomers. T e* %ro$ide t e feedac& efore t e %ro,ect contin+es to t e ne<t s%iral. AD8A=TA>ES 1)!t is good for large and critical %ro,ects. )!t red+ces ig amo+nt of ris&. )C ange re2+ests in t e Re2+irements at later % ase can e done acc+ratel* * +sing t is model. /)C+stomer can see t e de$elo%ment of t e %rod+ct at t e earl* % ase of t e soft'are de$elo%ment. 4)De$elo%ment can e di$ided in to smaller %arts and more ris&* %arts can e de$elo%ed earlier ' ic el%s etter ris& management. D!SAD8A=TA>ES 1)S%iral Model is not s+itale for small %ro,ects as it is e<%ensi$e. )As t e n+mer of % ases is +n&no'n at t e start of t e %ro,ect# so time estimation is $er* diffic+lt. )T e S%iral Model is m+c more com%le< t an ot er SDLC models. /)!t can e costl* to de$elo% a soft'are model. 4)6ig n+mer of t e intermediate stages re2+ires e<cessi$e doc+mentation.) 8(MODEL 1)T e 8(model model is an e<tension of t e 'aterfall model. )8 model is &no'n as 8erification and 8alidation model. )!t is a t*%e of SDLC model ' ere %rocess e<ec+tes in a se2+ential manner in 8(s a%e. /)De$elo%ment of eac ste% directl* associated 'it t e testing % ase.   4)T e ne<t % ase starts onl* after com%letion of t e %re$io+s % ase.i.e E$er* % ase com%letes its e<ec+tion efore t e e<ec+tion of ne<t % ase egins. 5)%rocesses are e<ec+ted se2+entiall*. 7)% ases of $ model are Re2+irements T e re2+irements of %rod+ct are +nderstood from t e c+stomers %oint of $ie' to &no' t eir e<act re2+irement and e<%ectation. 9)S*stem Design ig le$el design of t e soft'are is constr+cted. ;)Arc itect+re design T e mod+le relations i% and de%endencies of mod+le# arc itect+ral diagrams# dataase tales# tec nolog* details are com%leted in t is % ase. 1?) Mod+le design Se%aratel* design e$er* mod+le or t e soft'are com%onents.:nit tests are t e $ital %art of an* de$elo%ment %rocess. T e* el% to remo$e t e ma<im+m fa+lts and errors at an earl* stage. 11)Coding P ase T e act+al code design of mod+le designed in t e design % ase is graed in t e coding % ase. AD8A=TA>ES 1)Sim%le and eas* to +nderstand and +se. )8(Model is +sed for small %ro,ects ' ere %ro,ect re2+irements are clear. )Man* testing acti$ities i.e %lanning# test design are e<ec+ted in t e starting and ence it sa$es more time. /)Calc+lation of errors is done at t e starting of t e %ro,ect ence# less c ances of error occ+rred at final % ase of testing. 4)E$er* stage of 8(s a%ed model as strict res+lts so it@s eas* to contrl. D!SAD8A=TA>ES 1)Lac& of t e fle<iilit*. )8(model is not s+itale for large and com%osite %ro,ects. )!f t e re2+irements are not constant t en t is model is not acce%tale. /)ig ris& and +ncertaint*. 4)!t is not a good for com%le< and o,ect(oriented %ro,ects. /) !=CREME=TAL MODEL 1)T e incremental model comines t e elements of 'aterfall model and t e* are a%%lied in an iterati$e fas ion. )T e first increment in t is model is generall* a core %rod+ct. )!n t is model#eac increment +ilds t e %rod+ct and s+mits it to t e c+stomer for s+ggesting an* modifications. /)T e ne<t increment im%lements t e c+stomerBs s+ggestions and add additional re2+irements in t e %re$io+s increment. 4)T is %rocess is re%eated +ntil t e %rod+ct is com%leted. 5)T e % ases of !ncremental model Comm+nication  T e soft'are de$elo%ment starts 'it t e comm+nication et'een c+stomer and de$elo%er. 7)Planning !t consists of com%lete estimation# sc ed+ling for %ro,ect de$elo%ment. 9)Modeling !t consists of com%lete re2+irement anal*sis and t e design of t e %ro,ect li&e algorit m# flo'c art etc. ;)Constr+ctionConstr+ction consists of code generation and t e testing %art.Testing is to c ec& ' et er t e flo' of coding is correct or not. 1?)De%lo*ment De%lo*ment ste% consists of deli$ering t e %rod+ct to t e c+stomer and ta&ing feedac& from t em. AD8A=TA>ES 1):ses di$ide and con2+er for rea&do'n of tas&s. )Lo'ers initial deli$er* cost.   )!ncremental Reso+rce De%lo*ment. /)T is model is fle<ile eca+se t e cost of de$elo%ment is lo' and initial %rod+ct deli$er* is faster. 4)!t is easier to test and de+g in t e smaller iteration. 5)Error Red+ction. D!SAD8A=TA>ES 1)Re2+ires good %lanning and design. )Well defined mod+le interfaces are re2+ired. )Total cost is not lo'er.T e cost of t e final %rod+ct ma* cross t e cost initiall* estimated. /)T e demands of c+stomer for t e additional f+nctionalities after e$er* incrementca+ses %rolem in t e s*stem arc itect+re.4) !TERAT!8E MODEL 1)n !terati$e model# t e large a%%lication of soft'are de$elo%ment is di$ided intosmaller c +n&s and smaller %arts of soft'are ' ic can e re$ie'ed to recogni-e f+rt er re2+irements are im%lemented. )!t generates a ne' $ersion of t e soft'are in eac c*cle of a model. )Wit e$er* iteration# de$elo%ment mod+le goes t ro+g t e % ases /) P ases are re2+irement# design# im%lementation and testing. 4)T e !terati$e model does not need t e f+ll list of re2+irements efore t e %ro,ect starts. 5)T e %rocess is re%etiti$e# allo'ing to ma&e ne' $ersions of t e %rod+ct for e$er* c*cle. 7) !t a%%lies t e %arallel de$elo%ment. AD8A=TA>ES 1)T e %aralleled de$elo%ment can e a%%lied. )Prod+ces 'or&ing soft'are ra%idl* and earl* in t e soft'are life c*cle. )T is model is eas* to test and de+g in a smaller iteration. /)!t is less costl* to c ange sco%e and re2+irements. 4)Fle<iilit* and readiness to t e c anges in t e re2+irements. 5)!t is easier to control t e ris&s as ig (ris& tas&s are com%leted first. D!SAD8A=TA>ES 1)!terati$e model re2+ires more reso+rces t an t e 'aterfall model. )T e %rocess is diffic+lt to manage. )T e s*stem arc itect+re is costl*. /)T e ris&s ma* not e com%letel* determined e$en at t e final stage of t e %ro,ect. 4)Constant management is re2+ired.5) Agile Model 1)Agile de$elo%ment is one &ind of iterati$e and !ncremental de$elo%ment model. )!n t is#t e increments are small and t*%icall*# ne' releases of t e s*stem are created and made a$ailale to c+stomers e$er* fe' 'ee&s. )T is model foc+ses on t e +sers satisfaction ' ic can e ac ie$ed 'it 2+ic& deli$er* of t e 'or&ing soft'are %rod+ct. /)Agile model rea&s t e %rod+ct into indi$id+al iterations. 4)Wit e$er* increment# feat+res are incremented and t e final increment old all t e feat+res needed * t e c+stomers. 5)T e c+stomer is ale to see t e res+lt and +nderstand if e is satisfied 'it itor not. 7)E<treme %rogramming is one of t e %ractical +se of t e agile model. 9)T e asis of s+c model consists of s ort 'ee&l* meetings.
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