Pomegranate cultivation rahul mane

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1. Tissue Cultured Pomegranate Plants Cultivation Presented by, Rahul Mane Sr. Manager (Sales & Marketing) Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Agro Division, Ahmedabad 0091…
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  • 1. Tissue Cultured Pomegranate Plants Cultivation Presented by, Rahul Mane Sr. Manager (Sales & Marketing) Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Agro Division, Ahmedabad 0091 9890200340, cadila.agro@gmail.com
  • 2. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Pomum: (Apple) granatus :(grainy) or seeded apple.
  • 3. Major Growing Countries Pomegranate originated in Iran. India, Iran, China, USA and Turkey
  • 4. India has occupied first position in the world with respect to pomegranate area (1.25 lakh ha.) and production (8.21 lakh tonnes) Presently Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat are the leading states in Pomegranate cultivation.
  • 5. India has low productivity (6.57 tonnes /ha) compared to Spain (18.5 tonnes/ha) Export of Pomegranate from India increased 5 times in 2009-10 over 2002-03 Bright future for export in years to come.
  • 6. Edible portion (arils) of Pomegranate fruit. • 50 to 60 percent of total fruit weight • Includes 65 to 80 per cent juice and 15 to 25 percent seeds; 20 to 30 percent peel forms. • Citric acid predominantly found in juice. • Acidity below 0.6 percent. • In Himalayan region, acidity may be 3.5 to 4.5 percent, used for anardana. • The good source of antioxident.
  • 7. Consumer performance • Red colour skin • Red colour arils (seeds) • Red colour juice • Uniformity in size • Round in shape • Big size fruit
  • 8. Climate • Climate: Light loving plant. Best fruits in arid region having long, hot and dry summer. • Sub-tropical (hot season longer, cold is milder)to tropical (high temp. and humid) • Western Himalayan region:1600 to 3300 m above mean sea level. • Deccan Plateau region: 270 to 900 m above mean sea level.
  • 9. Soil • Almost all types of soil. Especially best growing in alluvial soil (fine, fertile soil), good drainage. • Saline tolerant crop • Water soluble salts like sulphates, chlorides and sodium have negative effect on root zone.
  • 10. Variety: Bhagawa • Good demand for domestic and export market. • Bigger fruit size, sweet. • Glossy red colour fruit skin, arils and juice. • Mature fruits in 180 days after flowering. • Thick skin: Good for distant market. • Present average rate: Rs. 40 to 100 per kg.
  • 11. Orchard Establishment
  • 12. Orchard Establishment 1. Long term investment 2. Well drained land with moderate slope 3-5 percent. 3. Assured electric supply for Irrigation facility. 4. Provision for fencing and wind brakes along the boundary: Jamun, Casuarina (Suru), Silver Oak.
  • 13. Fencing
  • 14. Planting system • Variety: Bhagava • Pit: 0.75 X 0.75 X 0.75 m • Spacing: 4.5 X 3 m • 740 plants per ha. • Closer spacing may invite disease and pest problem. • Drench with 0.15 % Carbendazim + 0.2 % Chlorpyriphos@2 to 4 lit/pit.
  • 15. Use of Biofertilizers • FYM:15 kg • Vermi compost: 2 kg • Neem cake: 1.5 kg • Tricoderma: 25 gm. • Phospate solubilising bacteria: 25 gm. • Azatobactor: 25 gm. • Kalisena (Aspergillus N.) and Josh (Mycorrhiza): 25 gm each.
  • 16. Planting • Watering is done to allow soil to settle down. • Use tissue cultured plants. • Care: Earth ball should not break. • Light irrigation is given after planting immediately: drip irrigation. • Season: February -March; July-August • Just after planting some support required for keep plant straight. Use 1 m long bamboo/ wooden stick. Tie one or two places with coconut strings.
  • 17. Planting on raised bed and in furrow
  • 18. Bamboo support
  • 19. Training System • Earlier training and pruning was not a common practice. • But fast growth of the industry, awareness created. • Single stem or Multi stem (3-4 stems allowed) training. • Within 2 years after planting develop proper canopy.
  • 20. Training System
  • 21. Pruning stages A) Young tree formation: 1. Pruning starts after 6-8 months to develop structural framework. 2. 3-4 main limbs with lowest branch starting at 25-30 cm above the ground(single stem training) or 3-4 stems (multi stem training). 3. Within 2 years after planting develop proper canopy.
  • 22. B) Maintenance pruning of bearing trees: 1. Pruning starts after third year. 2. Remove dead, diseased, broken and weak branches. 3. Reduce tree height and width. 4. Improve light and air penetration. 5. Remove suckers from ground level.
  • 23. Pruning technique • A) Topping: Pruning is done to reduce height. • In pre monsoon (May-June) or in winter(Dec- January) after fruit harvesting. • Applied organic manures and fertilizers after topping. • B) Skirting: Removal of lower tree branches. This improves under tree access for irrigation, weeding, fertilizers application.
  • 24. New sprouts after pruning
  • 25. Pruning tips: • Regular part of tree management. • Pruning minimises bending of branches and staking. • Sterilise pruning equipment : 3 % sodium hypochloride. • Heavy pruning should not be carried out in hot weather; can result excessive growth. • Avoid heavy pruning.
  • 26. Flowering • The flowers may be single or grouped in two or three at the end of the branches. • Generally cross pollination occurs by insect that increases fruit set. • Three seasons: • A) Ambe bahar (January-February flowering) • B) Mrig bahar (June-July flowering) • C) Hasta bahar (Sept-Oct flowering ) • Ambe bahar is most preferred because of high yield. We are recommending Hasta Bahar in bacterial blight infected areas (best fruit quality).
  • 27. Flowers
  • 28. Flowers • Male flower: are smaller bell shape or ovary size. • Intermediate flower: flower drops early or mis-shaped fruits. • Hermaphrodite flower: (male and female) well developed ovary. (60 to 70 % flowers in TC) • Flowers open in between 11 am to 2 pm at 37 to 38 degree C.
  • 29. Bahar Treatment • Only one crop should be taken in a year. • Giving forced rest by giving stress before flower initiation. • Stopping water for 30 to 35 days (in light soil) to 2 months (in sandy loam soil) before defoliation. • In the last period of stress, defoliation is done using ethrel 2to 2.5 ml/lit. • Just after defoliation, (80 to 85 % leaf fall) light pruning (15-20 cm) is done.
  • 30. • Just after that light irrigation and recommended dose of fertilizer is given. • Then normal irrigation is recommended. Excess irrigation avoided. • The tree responds and new flush of flowering. • Flowering starts within 30-60 days after first irrigation. • First male flowers appears. • Subsequently hermaphrodite flowers appears. • Fruit development.
  • 31. Manures and Fertilizers • Most of the root system distributed in top 60cm of soil and within 1 m of the stem. • Manures and fertilizers are applied in ring or small pits at 30-45 cm away from the main stem below the tree canopy at 8-10 cm depth and covered immediately.
  • 32. Fertilizers application
  • 33. Age of tree (Yr) FYM (Kg) Nitrogen (g) Phosphorus (g) Potash(g) 1 10 250 125 125 2 20 250 125 125 3 30 500 125 125 4 40 500 125 250 5 and above 45 625 250 250 1/3rd recommended dose of manures and fertilizers applied just after pruning in circular trenches (8-10 cm depth) at 40-45 cm away from the main stem; cover with soil and applied irrigation.
  • 34. • Remaining 2/3 recommended dose applied in split doses after defoliation and pruning. • First split (basal)dose consist of: a) 1/3 rd dose of N and K b) Full dose of P c) Neem cake @ 1 kg d) Vermicompost @1 kg e) Phorate 20 g f) Biofertilizers 25 gm each
  • 35. Two split doses of N and K at 3-4 weeks interval. One month before fruit harvest , schedule two drip irrigations applications of calcium nitrate 12.5 kg / ha/ application at 15 days interval.
  • 36. Water requirement Age of the Tree-Yr (lit/day/tree) Month 1 2 3 4 5 & above Jan 2.7 8 20 30 40 Feb 2.8 10 28 40 55 Mar 2.9 11 30 45 57 April 3.2 12 35 50 60 May 3.5 13 35 50 65 June 2 7 21 30 40 July 1.5 6 15 25 30 Aug 1.3 5 14 20 27 Sept 1.3 5 14 20 27 Oct 1.5 6 19 27 35 Nov 1.8 7 18 27 35 Dec 1.7 6 18 25 30 * Approx. Depends on soil, climate and weather conditions.
  • 37. Drip irrigation system
  • 38. Critical Stages for Irrigations e.g. Ambe Bahar at 4th year (lit/day/tree) I- New leaf initiation (30 days): Jan (10) II- Blooming and fruit set (60 days): Feb, Mar (30) III- Fruit development and maturity (120 days): April, July (50) IV- Harvesting (30 days): Aug. (25)
  • 39. Inter-cropping • Can be taken in rainy season • Low growing vegetables like onion, cabbage etc • Pulses • Green manuring crops. (in pre bearing orchards)
  • 40. Inter-cropping
  • 41. Weeding • Can use black polythene mulch • Can use organic mulches like paddy husk, sugarcane trash, banana trash etc. • Manual weeding is must. • Use of herbicides with proper care: Pre-emergence-Simazine (triazine) Post-emergence-Glyphosate *(Avoid higher dose of herbicides)
  • 42. Mulching
  • 43. Fruit quality enhancement • Thinning of fruits at appropriate stage. • 60-80 fruits on fully grown tree. • Good colour at ripening in Dec-Feb. preferred for export. • Potassium application through foliar spray or drip during fruit maturity. • Yield: 15-20 tonnes / ha.
  • 44. Important diseases and management 1. Bacterial blight (Telya): Oily spots can observe on leaves, stem and fruits. • Management: monthly spray a) Streptocycline: 0.5 g/l b) COC (copper oxy-chloride) : 2.5 g/l Or a) Bronopol : 0.5 g/l b) COC: 2.5 g/l * Apply bordeaux paste(10 %) on cut portion of the tree.
  • 45. Symptoms
  • 46. 2. Wilt: Caused by fungus, wilting of plant. Management: a) Drench with chlorpyriphos 20 EC (2.5 ml/l) and carbendazim 50 WP(2 g/l) Or b) Propiconazole 25 EC (2 ml/l)@ 5 lit/tree Repeat the drenching 3-4 times at 20 days interval.
  • 47. Thank you….. Presented by, Rahul Mane Sr. Manager (Sales & Marketing) Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Agro Division, Ahmedabad 0091 9890200340, cadila.agro@gmail.com
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