PL1101E - Chapter 6 Notes

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Psych Notes 6 Psychology Summary Consciousness
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  PL1101EUnit 6 Notes – Consciousness & Drugs Hallucinogens –   Stimulate the experience of false perceptions   Drug Effect  Mushrooms    Fly agaric mushrooms interacts with GABA and Glutamate       A New World mushroom boosts Serotonin    – psychotic state Mescaline    Green peyote cactus  –   influences Serotonin activity Phencyclidine(PCP)    Decreases Glutamate and increases Dopamine . Produces psychoticstate similar to schizophrenia    Originally anaesthetic, unpleasant effects, makes you aggressive andviolent, muscular tone too rigid or flexible, convulsions if a lot Marijuana    Contains cannabinoids  – most important is tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC)  –  interacts with receptors for endogenous cannabinoids which are naturalsubstances that are similar in composition. Receptors are in parts of brainlinked with pain, appetite, learning and movement  – hippocampus,prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia. Negative effect on memory    Stimulates Dopamine activity which is usually associated with a potentialfor physical dependency. Young adults double their risk of schizophrenia.    Excitation, vivid imagery, euphoria, distortion of sense of time, distance andspeed. Sometimes depression and social withdrawal. Lysergic AcidDiethylamide(LCD)    Chemically similar to Serotonin and it interacts with Serotoninreceptors .  Stimulants –   Increase the activity of the nervous system They increase alertness and mobility but decrease reaction time. Drug Effect  Caffeine    Interferes with the inhibition normally produced by  Adenosine .When it’s kept from doing its job, you get increased excitation andalertness.    Produces dependency  –   headaches and fatigue for ‘addicts’. Sometimes problems with heart rhythms. Crosses the placenta.    Correlated with lower risk of Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and otherdementia. Nicotine    Mimics the actions of   Acetylcholine    – increases heart rate and bloodpressure, reduces fatigue, improves cognitive performance and causesmuscular relaxation.    Chewing tobacco  – takes longer to get to peak but is more sustained.    High correlations with later drug and alcohol problems. Likely use bythose with disorders. Cocaine Amphetamine    Similar effects. Both boost   Dopamine in the brain  – direct effect onreward systems so very rapidly addictive.    Moderate doses  – alertness, elevated mood, confidence and well-being.    High doses  – similar to schizophrenia  – hallucinations and delusionalfears  – repetitive movements like teeth grinding.    Meth is likely to lead to psychosis. Dental decay  – meth mouth    Cocaine  – Freud used to recommend until aware of addiction.     Amphetamine  – used to be asthma treatment and by pilots to ward off fatigue and by housewives as diet aid. Methylphenidate(Ritalin)    Used for attention problems like ADHD. Ritalin and Adderall still used by ADHD. At clinical doses, do not seem to produce dependence.    Boost activity of  Dopamine and Norepinephrine  – stay alert andconcentrate. But they can affect sleep and appetite. MDMA(Ecstasy)    Relative of amphetamine and mescaline that increases heart rate, bloodpressure and body temperature.    Increases sociability by stimulating Serotonin and Oxytocin (romantic and personal bonding).    Seems to have detrimental effects on neurons that release serotonin.  Depressants –   Reduces the overall activity of the nervous system They lead to reductions in alertness and anxiety. Major substances in this categoryboost activity of the inhibitory   GABA.   Drug Effect   Alcohol    Relaxation, slows down activity in the judgement area of the cortex,reducing behavioural inhibitions. Dilates blood vessels, warm flushedfeeling, reduces anxiety.    Higher doses  – aggression, risky behaviours, poor motor coordination    Chronic alcoholism impacts frontal lobes and hippocampus  – cognitiveand memory deficits. Benzodiazepines& Barbiturates    Increases inhibition produced by GABA . Powerful dependence.    Legitimate medical uses  – anxiety reduction, control of seizures.    Higher doses - euphoria Opiates –   Reduces the overall activity of the nervous system  Poppy is the source of several natural psychoactive opiates such as    Morphine and  Heroin. They initiate the action of our nation opiates (Endorphins).   Drug Effect  Opiates    Legitimate medical purposes  – Pain control, cough suppression and diarrhoeacontrol.    Low doses  – euphoria, pain relief, reduced anxiety, muscle relaxation, sleep.    Higher doses  – tremendous euphoria/rush. Even higher  – Depression on breathing    Painkiller Oxycontin  – often abused.
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