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    Guidance Notes on Subsea Pipeline Route Determination   GUIDANCE NOTES ON SUBSEA PIPELINE ROUTE DETERMINATION  AUGUST 2016 American Bureau of Shipping Incorporated by Act of Legislature of the State of New York 1862 2016. American Bureau of Shipping. All rights reserved. ABS Plaza 16855 Northchase Drive Houston, TX 77060 USA    Foreword   Foreword The ABS Classification of a subsea pipeline system requires review of data and analysis results concerning conditions along the selected route of the pipeline. Prior to the final selection of the route and detailed design of the pipeline system, different routes will be considered and assessed. A method for route determination is presented in these Guidance Notes where candidate routes are selected and assessed. The method relies on the use of available Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and risk assessment techniques. An example of the method’s application is provided. The ABS Guide for Building and Classing Subsea Pipeline Systems  is the controlling standard for the ABS Classification of such a system. The process of pipeline route determination is not in the scope of ABS’ Classification of a pipeline system. However, the contents of these Guidance Notes provide a suggested approach to this topic that should be beneficial to readers. It is acknowledged that methods of survey data collection and interpretation, data assessment and routing techniques, and risk assessment are constantly evolving. Improvements in these subjects are encouraged, and the publication of these Guidance Notes is not to inhibit the use of applicable, proven technology. These Guidance Notes become effective on the first day of the month of publication. Users are advised to check periodically on the ABS website www.eagle.org to verify that this version of these Guidance Notes is the most current. We welcome your feedback. Comments or suggestions can be sent electronically by email to rsd@eagle.org.  Terms of Use   The information presented herein is intended solely to assist the reader in the methodologies and/or techniques discussed. These Guidance Notes do not and cannot replace the analysis and/or advice of a qualified  professional. It is the responsibility of the reader to perform their own assessment and obtain professional advice. Information contained herein is considered to be pertinent at the time of publication, but may be invalidated as a result of subsequent legislations, regulations, standards, methods, and/or more updated information and the reader assumes full responsibility for compliance. This publication may not be copied or redistributed in part or in whole without prior written consent from ABS. ii ABS   GUIDANCE NOTES ON SUBSEA PIPELINE ROUTE DETERMINATION .   2016    Table of Contents   GUIDANCE NOTES ON SUBSEA PIPELINE ROUTE DETERMINATION CONTENTS SECTION 1 Criteria for Pipeline Route Determination ............................................ 1   1   Introduction ......................................................................................... 1   1.1   Purpose and Scope ......................................................................... 1   1.3   Pipeline Route Selection Criteria and Determination Flowchart ...... 1   1.5   Required Documentation ................................................................. 2   1.7   Pipeline System Design Guides and Standards .............................. 3   3   Data Acquisition and Site Characterization ........................................ 3   3.1   Regional Geophysical Surveys ........................................................ 4   3.3   Metocean Data ................................................................................ 7   3.5   Coring and In Situ Testing ............................................................... 8   3.7   Other Kinds of Surveys.................................................................... 9   5   Hazard Identification ......................................................................... 10   5.1   Geohazards ................................................................................... 10   5.3   Manmade Hazards ........................................................................ 21   5.5   Effect of Geohazards on Pipelines and General Responses ......... 21   7   Other Routing Considerations .......................................................... 22   7.1   Ecological and Environmental Constraints .................................... 22   7.3   Cultural Constraints ....................................................................... 23   7.5   Pipeline Curvature Constraint ........................................................ 23   7.7   Project-Specific Constraints .......................................................... 23   7.9   Onshore Routing ........................................................................... 23   TABLE 1 Geophysical Survey Types ....................................................... 5   TABLE 2 Potential Pipeline Geohazards and Manmade Hazards and Response to Their Effect ........................................................ 22   FIGURE 1 Pipeline Route Determination Flowchart .................................. 2   FIGURE 2 Geophysical Survey Data Resolution Comparison ................... 6   FIGURE 3 AUV SBP, 3-D Seismic, and 2-D UHR Data Resolution Comparison ............................................................................... 7   FIGURE 4 Geohazard Examples ............................................................. 11   FIGURE 5 Example Geometric Geohazards ............................................ 11   FIGURE 6 Mass Transport Deposits ........................................................ 13   FIGURE 7 Sediment Transport Pathways ................................................ 14   FIGURE 8 Erosion and Deposition ........................................................... 15   FIGURE 9 Tectonic Effects....................................................................... 16   ABS   GUIDANCE NOTES ON SUBSEA PIPELINE ROUTE DETERMINATION .   2016 iii      FIGURE 10 Faults ...................................................................................... 17   FIGURE 11 Expulsion Features ................................................................. 18   FIGURE 12 Volcanic Activity ...................................................................... 19   FIGURE 13 Sea Ice .................................................................................... 20   FIGURE 14 Anthropogenic-Generated Slope Failure ................................ 21   SECTION 2 Methods for Route Determination ....................................................... 24   1   Route Determination Options ............................................................ 24   1.1   Required Input ............................................................................... 24   1.3   Required Software ......................................................................... 24   3   Geocost: Geohazard, Cultural, and Ecological Classification .......... 25   3.1   Composite Geocost Map ............................................................... 26   5   Route Selection ................................................................................. 28   5.1   Manual Route Selection ................................................................. 28   5.3   Least-geocost Path Optimization ................................................... 28   5.5   Stochastic Simulation for Sensitivity Analysis ................................ 29   7   Route Evaluation ............................................................................... 31   TABLE 1 Descriptions for Geocosts ....................................................... 25   TABLE 2 Examples of Typical Geocosts for Subsea Geohazards ........ 26   TABLE 3 Ranges of Sample Points Recommended for Stochastic Simulation of Cost Surface Uncertainties ............................... 30   FIGURE 1 Composite Geocost Map Premise .......................................... 27   FIGURE 2 Composite Geocost Map ........................................................ 27   FIGURE 3 Least-Geocost Path Pipeline Routing ..................................... 29   FIGURE 4 Stochastic Simulations ............................................................ 30   SECTION 3 Risk Assessment .................................................................................. 32   1   Principles ........................................................................................... 32   1.1   Hazard Identification ...................................................................... 33   1.3   Risk Matrix ..................................................................................... 34   1.5   Site or Component Specific Risk Analysis ..................................... 36   TABLE 1 Example Risk Matrix ............................................................... 35   TABLE 2 Example Risk Levels for Health and Safety, Environmental, Social, and Financial Consequences ...................................... 36   FIGURE 1 Risk Assessment Flowchart .................................................... 33    APPENDIX 1 Acronyms and Abbreviations .............................................................. 37 iv ABS   GUIDANCE NOTES ON SUBSEA PIPELINE ROUTE DETERMINATION .   2016
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