Narendra Modi

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Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi ( pronunciation (help·info); born 17 September 1950) is the 14th and current Chief Minister of Gujarat, a state in western India, representing the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Modi was a key strategist for the BJP in the successful 1995 and 1998 Gujarat state election campaigns. He first became chief minister of Gujarat in October 2001, being promoted to the office upon the resignation of his predecessor, Keshubhai Patel, following the defeat of BJP in by-
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  Narendra ModiNarendra Damodardas Modi (  pronunciation (help·info); born 17 September 1950) is the 14 th and current Chief Minister of Gujarat,a state in western India, representing the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Modi was a key strategist for the BJP in the successful 1995 and 1998Gujarat state election campaigns. He first became chief minister of Gujarat in October 2001, being promoted to the office upon theresignation of his predecessor, Keshubhai Patel,following the defeat of  BJP in by-elections. In July 2007, he became the longest-serving Chief Minister in Gujarat's history when he had been in power for 2,063 dayscontinuously. He is currently into his fourth consecutive term as Chief Minister.Modi is a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and is described as a Hindu nationalist  by scholars and himself . [1][2][3]  Modi is acontroversial figure both within India and internationally. [4][5][6][7]  Whilehis administration has been criticised for the incidents surrounding the2002 Gujarat violence, [7][8]  he has also been praised for his economic policies which are credited with creating the environment for the higheconomic growth in Gujarat. [9]   Early life and education Modi was born on 17 September 1950 [10]  to a family of grocers inVadnagar  in Mehsana district of what was then Bombay State (present- day Gujarat), India. [11]  He was the third of six children born toDamodardas Mulchand Modi and his wife, Heeraben. [12][13]  While ateenager, Modi ran a tea stall with his brother around a bus terminus. [14]  He completed his schooling in Vadnagar, where a teacher described himas being an average student but a keen debater . [13]  He began work in the staff canteen of  Gujarat State Road TransportCorporation (GSRTC), where he stayed till he became a full  –  time   pracharak  (propagator) of the RSS. [13][15]  After Modi had received someRSS training in  Nagpur ,which was a prerequisite for taking up an official  position in the Sangh Parivar ,he was given charge of Sangh's student wing, Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), in Gujarat. Modi organised agitations and covert distribution of Sangh's pamphlets duringthe Emergency. [13]  During his years in the RSS, Modi came in touch withVasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, leaders of the Jan Sangh,  who later founded the BJP's Gujarat state unit. [15]  Modi remained a  pracharak  in the RSS while he completed his Master's degree in politicalscience from Gujarat University. [16]   Early political career The RSS seconded Modi to the BJP in 1987. [15][17]  While Shankarsingh Vaghela and Keshubhai Patel were the established names in the BJP,Modi rose to prominence after organising Murli Manohar Joshi's  Ekta yatra (journey for unity). [13]  His electoral strategy was central to BJP'svictory in the 1995 state elections. [15][17][18]  Modi became the General Secretary of the BJP and was transferred to New Delhi where he was assigned responsibility for the party's activitiesin Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. [17]  Vaghela, who had threatened to break away from BJP in 1995, defected from the BJP after he lost the1996 Lok Sabha elections. In 1998, Modi was promoted to the post of   National Secretary of the BJP. [13]  While selecting candidates for the 1998state elections in Gujarat, Modi sidelined people who were loyal toVaghela and rewarded those who favoured Patel, thus ending factionaldivisions within the party. His strategies were key to winning thoseelections. [17]    Chief Minister of GujaratFirst Term (2001-2002) Patel's failing health, along with allegations of abuse of power, corruptionand poor administration, as well as a loss of BJP seats in by-elections andthe effects of the devastating Bhuj Earthquake of 2001, which his administration struggled to handle, prompted the BJP's nationalleadership to seek a new candidate for the office of chief minister . [17][19][20]  Modi, who had aired his misgivings about Patel's administration, waschosen as a replacement. [13]  L. K. Advani,a senior leader of the BJP, however, did not want to ostracise Patel and was worried about Modi'slack of experience in governance. It was suggested that Modi should bemade the deputy chief minister in a government led by Patel. Modiinformed Advani and Atal Bihari Vajpayee that he was going to be fully responsible for Gujarat or not at all and declined the proposal. On 7October 2001, Modi was appointed the Chief Minister of Gujarat and wasassigned responsibility to prepare the BJP for elections in December 2002. [19]  As Chief Minister, Modi's ideas of governance revolved around privatisation and small government,which stood at odds with what Aditi Phadnis has described as the anti  –   privatisation, anti  –  globalisation position of the RSS. [19]   2002 Gujarat violence  Main article: 2002 Gujarat violence  In 2002, there was widespread Anti-Muslim violence throughout Gujarat after reports that a crowd of Muslims had attacked a train carrying mostlyHindu Pilgrims and set it on fire near  Godhra railway station  burning alive many of the paasengers. [21]  The Gujarat administration was accused by the opposition and sections of the media of taking insufficient actionagainst the violence, and even condoning it in some cases. [22][23][24]  TheModi government had imposed curfews, issued shoot-at-sight orders and  called for the army to prevent the violence from worsening but thecombined strength of the army and state police proved insufficient. [23][24]  In April 2009, the Supreme Court of India appointed a Special Investigation Team (SIT) to inquire into the Gujarat government and Narendra Modi's role in the incidents of communal violence. [22]  The SITreported to the court in December 2010 submitting that they did not findany incriminating evidence against Modi of willfully allowing communalviolence in the state. [25]  Modi's decision to move the corpses of the  kar sevaks  who had been burned to death in Godhra to Ahmedabad had been criticised for inflaming the violence. [26][27]  However, the SIT found his decision to be justified. [28]  In April 2012, the SIT absolved Modi of any involvement in the GulbargSociety massacre that occurred in 2002. [29][30]  On 7 May 2012, theSupreme Court-appointed  amicus curiae ,Raju Ramachandran, observedthat Modi could be prosecuted for promoting enmity among differentgroups during the 2002 Gujarat violence. His main contention was thatthe evidence should be examined by a court of law because the SIT wasrequired to investigate but not to judge. [31]  The amicus report has beencriticised by the Special Investigation Team for relying heavily on thetestimony of Sanjiv Bhatt. [32]  In July 2013, Zakia Jaffri, widow of EhsanJafri, alleged that the SIT was suppressing evidence. [33]   2002 election  Main article: Gujarat legislative assembly election, 2002  In the aftermath of the violence, there were calls for Modi to resign fromhis position as chief minister of Gujarat. The opposition parties stalled thenational  parliament over the issue. Both the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam  (DMK) and the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), allies of the BJP, also asked for Modi's resignation, as did Jayalalithaa,the then-Chief Minister of 
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