Modified Solar Report for photovoltaics

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small basic report on diferent types of photovoltaics used
  Solar Energy: Sunlight , in the broad sense, is the totalfrequency spectrumof  electromagnetic radiationgiven off by theSun. OnEarth, sunlight isfilteredthrough theEarth's atmosphere, and solar radiation is obvious asdaylightwhen the Sun is above thehorizon. Various Technologies For Tapping Solar Energy: PV Technologies: Mono-Crystalline.Poly-Crystalline.Micro-Crystalline.   Thin-Film Technologies:  Amorphous-Si.Cadmium-Telluride.Copper Indium Selenide /Sulphide. And other Technologies: Parabolic Trough Dish Sterling.  PV Technology: A solar cell is a device that converts the energy of sunlight directly intoelectricity by thephotovoltaic effect. Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for devicesintended specifically to capture energy from sunlight such as solar panels and solarcells, while the term  photovoltaic cell is used when the light source is unspecified.Assemblies of cells are used to makesolar panels,solar modules, orphotovoltaic  arrays. The energy generated this way is an example of solar energy(also known as solar power). Mono-Crystalline: Mono-Crystalline Si is often made by single crystal a wafer cell which tends to be   very expensive as theyare cut from cylindrical IGNOTS.   The main advantage of these cells is the efficiency (14 to 17%). The cost of these module is about 4.25 $/Wp Poly-Crystalline:  Cells are made from large blocks of Molten-Si carefully cooled and solidified. Even though this type of cells are less expensive compared to mono-crystalline but they are less efficient (12 to 14%).The cost of Poly-Crystalline module is about 2.25$/Wp Thin Film Technology:  The various thin-film technologies currently being developed reduce the amount (ormass) of light absorbing material required in creating a solar cell. This can lead toreduced processing costs from that of bulk materials (in the case of silicon thinfilms) but also tends to reduce energy conversion efficiency (an average of 7 to10% efficiency), although many multi-layer thin films have efficiencies above thoseof bulk silicon wafers. The cost of these module is about 1.48$/Wp   Cell Technologies And Manufacturers TechnologiesManufacturersCountry Tie Upsin INDIA1MonoCrystallineShandong Linuo PhotovoltaicHi-TechChina Arise TechnologiesCorporationCanada Canrom PhotovoltaicsCanada USL Photovoltaics PrivateLimitedIndiaCentral ElectronicsLimited(CEL)IndiaBharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.(BHEL)India2Poly CrystallineHemlock Semiconductor USARenewable EnergyCorporation ASA (REC)NorwayNOSpectra WattUsaNOMEMC Electronic MaterialsUSANOUSL Photovoltaics PrivateLimitedIndiaMoserBaerIndia3  Thin Film Wafers  Amorphous-Si   NovergyIndiaSanyoKOREA NOSolar CellCentralEurope NODupontChinaSunergy   Cadmium TellurideFirst SolarUSANOPrime StarUSAAbound SolarColardo copper indiumgalliumdiselenideNano SolarUSAPaBhuVan Inc.HelioVolt CorporationUSANO Thin Film wafers have become popular compared to wafer silicon due tolower costs and advantages including flexibility, lighter weights, and easeof integration. Seeking for the low cost and effective utilization we havechosen Thin Film Technology in our project.    Thin Film ModuleManufacturer  S.noCompanyCountrycells andModulesAmorphous-Si1Novergy(7.7Cr/MW)IndiaBoth2Sunergy(8.4Cr/MW)IndiaModules3HHV SolarIndiaBoth4Signet SolarUSAModules5KanekaJapanModules6Solar Thin FilmsUSAModules CdTe 1First SolarUSABoth2Abound SolarUSABoth3Prime StarColaradoBoth copper indium galliumdiselenide1Nano SolarUSABoth2HelioVolt CorporationUSABoth Why Thin Film Technology Preferred in our Project? 1.The Temp. Coefficient of a-Si panels is 50% better than c-SI panels  2. The irradiation coefficient of a-Si panels is 25% better than c-Si panels3.For the same Wattage considered the cost incurred for the Thin Film is very less   compared to MONO and POLY Crystalline TechnologyINVERTER: The power conditioning and control system is constituted by an inverter that converts direct current toalternating current and controls the quality of the output power to be delivered to the grid, also by meansof an L-C filter inside the inverter itself.   INVERTER SUPPLIERS  S.noCompany AddressItemsLocationCost/MWRs inCrores1Samil Power(Includes MPPT)INVERTERS andPV ARRAYCombinersChina1.252AutoronicaIndia(includesMPPT)Inverters ,Battery Chargers, ChargeControllersINDIANCOMPANY(Haryana)3.253Sterling SystemsInverters ,Battery Chargers.INDIANCOMPANY(Haryana)NOTAVAILABLE4ABB solar Inverters , Thinfilm ModulesIndia5DB PowerElectronicsInvertersIndia6 Siemens AGInvertersGermany7Akowa ElectronicsCo., Ltd.Solar Inverters China8Power Master Technology Co.,Ltd.Solar Inverters china
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