Mapping PM 2.5 – Methods and Uncertainties

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Presented by: Tami H. Funk Timothy S. Dye Alan C. Chan Craig B. Andersen Bryan M. Penfold Sonoma Technology, Inc. Petaluma, CA U.S. EPA National Air Quality Conference: It’s Not Just About Ozone Anymore February 2-5, 2003 San Antonio, TX Mapping PM 2.5 – Methods and Uncertainties
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Presented by:Tami H. FunkTimothy S. DyeAlan C. ChanCraig B. AndersenBryan M. PenfoldSonoma Technology, Inc.Petaluma, CAU.S. EPA National Air Quality Conference:It’s Not Just About Ozone AnymoreFebruary 2-5, 2003San Antonio, TXMapping PM2.5 – Methods and Uncertainties902090-2324Overview
  • Mapping issues
  • Uncertainty analysis of common mapping methods
  • A method to improve PM2.5 mapping
  • Understanding PM2.5 characteristics can improve mapping
  • Alternative displays of PM2.5 data
  • Continuous PM2.5 MonitorsContinuous Ozone MonitorsMapping Issues (1 of 2)
  • Limited number of continuous PM2.5 monitors in the U.S.
  • Mapping Issues (2 of 2)
  • PM2.5 is a regional and local pollutant
  • PM2.5 characteristics vary from region to region (e.g. urban vs. rural)
  • Varying terrain and seasonal characteristics also affect consistency of mapping
  • 0.064.55.28.65.53.7Base Map1.08.0PM2.5 Data PointsInterpolation Uncertainty(µg/m3)6.0PM2.5 ContoursPM2.5 – July 18, 200224-hr AveragesUncertainty AnalysisOverall Uncertainty of InterpolationUncertainty Analysis - MappingOzone, PM2.5,TemperatureInverse Distance Weighted (IDW) & KrigingJuly 15 – 19, 2002 (regional PM episode)Uncertainty Analysis - ResultsSummary of IDW results:Summary of kriging results:*RMSE = Root Mean Square ErrorA Method to Improve PM2.5 MappingCokriging: surrogate data used to augment spatial coverage of PM2.5 monitors:
  • visibility data as a mapping surrogate
  • population density or urban boundaries as surrogates
  • topography to define regions of influence
  • Base MapData PointsSurrogate DataContoursOzone – July 18, 2002 Average 8-hr MaximumReduced Uncertainty?Temperature °FExample - CokrigingUnderstanding the Characteristics of PM2.5
  • A better understanding of PM2.5 by region is needed to improve mapping results
  • Explore relationships with possible surrogate data sets
  • ASOS visibility data, satellite data, digital elevation data, etc.
  • PM2.5 AQI as Point ValuesPM2.5 AQI Values by CountyAlternative Displays of PM2.5 Data
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