Investigation of heavy metals content (Cd , Ni and Pb) in the muscle tissue of two commercial fishes of the Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf )

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This study has been done to determine the amount of the heavy metals like Cd, Ni, and Pb in the muscle tissue of Hoof benthic fish (Psettodes erumei) and urban pelagic fish (Lethrinus nebulosus) in Qeshm Island in the north of the Persian Gulf. On the whole, the heavy metal content of 30 tissue samples was randomly measured by atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean amount of Cd and Ni in benthic Hoof was significantly greater than that in the Urban pelagic fish while the concentration of pb in urban pelagic fish was higher than that in the Hoof tissue samples (P<0.05). Our results showed that the concentration of the three measured heavy metals in the fishes studied was less than the standard levels proposed by WHO and FAO. Get via original link:
  • 1. J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 159 | Gholami et al. RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS Investigation of heavy metals content (Cd , Ni and Pb) in the muscle tissue of two commercial fishes of the Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf ) Somayeh Gholami1* , Shirin Aghanajafizadeh 2 , Morteza Naderi3 1 Department of Environment, Bandarabbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandarabbas, Iran 2 Department of Environment, Maybod Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maybod, Iran 3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, 38156-8-8349, Arak, Iran Article published on February 14, 2016 Key words: Heavy metals, Water pollution, Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island, Iran. Abstract This study has been done to determine the amount of the heavy metals like Cd, Ni, and Pb in the muscle tissue of Hoof benthic fish (Psettodes erumei) and urban pelagic fish (Lethrinus nebulosus) in Qeshm Island in the north of the Persian Gulf. On the whole, the heavy metal content of 30 tissue samples was randomly measured by atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean amount of Cd and Ni in benthic Hoof was significantly greater than that in the Urban pelagic fish while the concentration of pb in urban pelagic fish was higher than that in the Hoof tissue samples (P<0.05). Our results showed that the concentration of the three measured heavy metals in the fishes studied was less than the standard levels proposed by WHO and FAO. *Corresponding Author: Somayeh Gholami  Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online) Vol. 8, No. 2, p. 159-165, 2016
  • 2. J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 160 | Gholami et al. Introduction Fish as a valuable source of nutritional requirement constitutes one of the main feeding items for many people around the world. It is also highly recommended for pregnant women thanks to its Omega-3 rich content necessary for embryo’s brain development. In spite of such a valuable source of micro- and macro-nutrients, anthropogenic water pollution around the world has raised new concerns about the consumption of fish. The amount of heavy metals is continuously increasing in different ecosystems through anthropogenic activities such as agricultural practices, urbanization, and industrialization (Giguere et al., 2004; Gupta et al., 2009), especially in aquatic ecosystem. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of especially toxic metals is a growing concern for scientists and is turning to an important worldwide problem (Malik et al., 2010). Many investigations have proved that some dangerous heavy metals and toxins can be magnified along the food chains and reach high levels in top predators such as big fishes and carnivore birds (Nehring et al., 1979; Marquenie, 1985; Babel and Kurniawan, 2004; Sahebi and Emtyazjoo, 2011). Other investigations have also proved that these metals can be deposited and magnified in sedimentary and aquatic biomass (Linnik and Zubenko, 2000). Some of these metals can reach a harmful level in the upper trophic levels (Agah et al., 2009). However, biomagnification of metals along aquatic trophic food chains has not been proved for many metals (Gerhardt, 1992). For example, toxicity of some heavy metals such as Cd, Fe, Zn, and Pb is related to water pH (Gerhardt, 1992). Comparing the amount of heavy metals accumulated in muscle tissue of different fish species showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in pelagic species is lower than that in carnivorous benthic species (Romeo 1999; Aguso, 2005; Cogun, 2005). L. nebulosus as an urban pelagic fish and P. erumei as a benthic species are two valuable commercial species in Southern Iran. The main objective of the present study was to determine and compare the concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in two commercial fish species in Qeshm Island in north of Persia Gulf with global accepted standards. Material and methods The area of Study We sampled the fish species from the area near the Hormoz Canyon in the Persian Gulf (N 26o, 30´ and E 56o, 16´) (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. Study area in the Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.
  • 3. J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 161 | Gholami et al. Sampling and analysis Over the 7 days of sampling in May 2014, we sampled a total of 30 specimens of fishes which were then weighed and transferred to laboratory in a cool box on the same day and frozen at (-20 C°) before dissection (Tepe et al., 2008). After defrosting in the laboratory, each sample was weighed to the nearest 0. 1 g, put onto petri dishes and placed in the dryer at 105◦C. After obtaining the stable weight, the samples were ashed at 450◦C, then they were digested in 2 mL of 65% nitric acid and the entire solution was diluted to 10 mL with deionized water. The samples thus prepared were analyzed with the flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The final results were presented as concentrations in μg/g of dry weight. The normal distribution of data was checked with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In case of non-normal data distribution, we used Mann- Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests to investigate the significant differences in the concentration of the heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) between the two species studied. SPSS software package v. 20 was used for statistical analysis. Bioaccumulation factor was determined according to (Demina et al., 2009) as: ( g/kg) GS V C W    In this equation C is referred to the concentration obtained from the device (mg/kg or µg/kg), GS is the metal concentration in the solution gained from digestion process, V is equal to the final solution volume (50 ml) and finally W is the dried sample weight. Statistical variation analysis and correlation coefficient (r) were also obtained. Results In the following table (Table 1), the morphometric characteristics of the studied fish species are presented. Mean concentration of the Pb, Cd, and Ni are summarized in Table 2. Comparing the mean value of the measured heavy metals between two species by t-student analysis indicated that the mean concentration of Cd and Ni is significantly higher in P. erumei than that in L. nebulosus (P<0.001), while the concentration of Pb shows reverse situation (P<0.001) (Table 3). Linear Regression Analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between Cd content and P. erumei weight (t= 3.48, R2=0.48). Low regression coefficient (R2=0.11 and 0.04 for P. erumei and L. nebulosus, respectively) indicated that there was no considerable relationship between Ni concentration and the weight of the two species. The same results were obtained for Pb concentration and L. nebulosus (R2=0.33) (Table 4). Comparing our results with those of the globally accepted standards showed that the amount of Pb, Ni, and Cd was below the standards and fortunately these species were safe feeding items regarding the three heavy metals (Table 5). The mean concentrations of the metals followed the sequence of Pb<Ni<Cd for the soft tissues of the two fish species under study. Table 1. Mean weight and body length of the studied species. MaxMinSDMeanVariableSpecies 50351.1941.53Total Length (cm)P. erumei 142062059.88959.33Weight (gr) 45380.5442.33Total Length (cm) L. nebulosus 140074052.751054.67Weight (gr) Discussion The metal concentrations measured reflect a clear influence of anthropogenic activities; additionally, the effective exposure of organisms to different metals may be influenced by either changes in metal speciation or the relative distribution of metals between particles of different sizes and densities (Turkmen et al., 2006). The observed difference of
  • 4. J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 162 | Gholami et al. heavy metal concentration between the two fishes studied is due to the feeding behavior of these organisms (Madkour, 2012). Higher amount of Cd and Ni in P. erumei as a benthic species can also be related to the sediments of the heavy metal contents. Investigations showed that heavy metal concentration increased in the particulate phase of the sediments due to an increase in the level of the matter suspended by erosive process or soil drift from near land and rise of continental slop (Rainbow, 2007), as well as the tendency of heavy metals to adsorption on particulate matter surface in water column (Demina et al., 2009). Table 2. Mean concentration of Pb, Ni and Cd in P. erumei (n=15) and L. nebulosus (n=15). L. nebulosusP. erumeiL. nebulosusP. erumeiL. nebulosusP. erumei PbNiCdvariable 3.2329.640.560.290.160.06Mean 4.65610.800.520.190.20Max 1.404.550.350.100.150.02Min 0.243.720.030.030.0020.01SD Investigations performed on the sediment of the content of heavy metals by different researchers showed that the amount of heavy metals of (Cd, Ni, and Pb) made the sediments a potential source for heavy metal pollution and transportation of these metals to aquatic system through food chain (Ardalan et al., 2013). Higher concentration of heavy metals in sediments rather than in water was observed in different studies and the major deposits of metals in some cases held more than 99 percent of the total amount of the metal present in the aquatic system (Netpae and Phalaraksh, 2009). Table 3. T-student analysis results in comparing measured heavy metal content between two fish species. PSE±Mean (L. nebulosus) SE±Mean (P. erumei) Variables 0.1059.88±959.3352.75±5424.67Weight/g 0.541.19±41.530.54±42.33Length/cm 0.001>0.01±0.060.002±0.16Cd/ µg 0.001>0.03±0.290.03±0.56Ni/ µg 0.001>3.72±29.640.24±3.23Pb/ µg Table 4. Regression model to predict relationship between Fish weight and amount of accumulated Pb in the muscle tissue. Species B SE t Sig. R square P. erumei 3.81 0.01 3.48 0.004 0.48 L. nebulosus 0.03 0.01 2.52 0.02 0.33 Romeo et al. (1999) concluded that heavy metal concentration of edible pelagic fishes in Mauritania shores were significantly lower than that in benthic species. Agusa et al. (2005) also showed that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in carnivorous fishes than that in herbivore ones. Congun et al. (2005) compared the content of heavy metals in benthic Solea solea with that in pelagic Sparus aurata and came out with higher amount of the metals in pelagic one. These findings were related
  • 5. J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 163 | Gholami et al. to the metabolic activity and feeding behavior of the species (Cogun 2006; Barone 2013). Our results are also in agreement with these investigations, since the amount of the measured heavy metals was higher in benthic species than that in pelagic one. We suggest that the concentration of other metals such Hg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Co especially in different seasons can provide valuable results. Table 5. Comparing mean concentration of three measured heavy metals by globally accepted standard levels (µg/g wet weight). ReferencesPbNiCdOrganizations Collete and Nauen, 1983))0.5-0.5Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (Biney and Ameyibor, 1992)1.5- Health Organization (WHO) European Commission, 2005))0.2-0.50EC Chen et al., 2001))5-1Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Darmono and Denton, 1990))1.5-0.05National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (MAFF, 1995)2-0.2UKMAFF Nauen, 1983))2-1New Zealand Nauen, 1983))6-2Hong Kong Nauen, 1983))1-0.1Switzerland Conclusion Our results showed that metal accumulation varied between species depending on fish species. Mean weight caused variation in Pb and Cd accumulations between fish captured from the same species. While P. erumei accumulated high concentrations of Pb in the muscle tissue when compared to the L. nebulosus, health risk analysis indicated that it is in safe levels for human consumption based on generally accepted standards. However, the levels of toxic metals in pelagic fish should be continuously monitored in especially polluted areas. Acknowledgment The authors would like to acknowledge the people who helped during sampling. Thanks to Dr. Mohammadizadeh, Mr Bagheri, Akhdad and Sayadani who helped us in the laboratory analysis. References Agah H, Leermakers M, Elskens M, Fatemi SM, Baeyens W. 2009. Accumulation of trace metals in the muscle and liver tissues of five species from the Persian Gulf. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 157, 499-514. Agusa T, Kunito T, Yasunaga GH, Iwata A, Subramanian Ismail A, Tanabe S. 2005. Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia. Journal of Marine Pollution 51, 896 - 911. Ardalan AA, Khoshkhoo Z, Rabbani M, Moini S. 2006. Comparative study for heavy metals concentration (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in water, sediments and soft tissue of Anzali lagoon Anodont (Anodonta cygnea) sampled in two seasons, Autumn and Spring. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 73, 103-113. Babel S, Kurniawan TA. 2004. Cr removal from synthetic wastewater using coconut shell charcoal and commercial activated carbon modified with oxidizing agents and/ or chitosan. Chemosphere 54, 951-967. Barone G, GiacominelliStuffler R, Storelli S. 2013. Comparative study on trace metal accumulation in the liver of two fish species (Torpedinidae): Concentration–size relationship. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 97, 73-77. Biney CA, Ameyibor E. 1992. Trace Metal Concentrations in the Pink Shrimp Penaeus notialis from the Coast of Ghana. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 63, 273-279.
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