HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 Overview

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HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 Overview. Number of people newly diagnosed and people living with diagnosed HIV infection: United Kingdom, 1980-2011. Estimated number of people living with (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) HIV infection in the United Kingdom: 2011.
HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 OverviewNumber of people newly diagnosed and people living with diagnosed HIV infection: United Kingdom, 1980-2011Estimated number of people living with (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) HIV infection in the United Kingdom: 2011Annual new HIV and AIDS diagnoses and deaths: United Kingdom, 1981-2011New HIV diagnoses by exposure group: United Kingdom, 2002 – 20111Recently acquired infections among people newly diagnosed with HIV by exposure group: England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2011 People diagnosed with HIV infection seen for HIV care by age group: United Kingdom, 2002-2011*Quality of care indicators for adult HIV patients: United Kingdom, 2011Late diagnosis1 of HIV infection by exposure group: United Kingdom, 2011Trends in late diagnosis1 by exposure group: United Kingdom, 2002-2011Prevalence of diagnosed HIV infection by region of residence among population aged 15-59 years: United Kingdom, 2011 Less than 11-2London>2HIV tests among STI clinic attendees: England, 2009-2011Prevalence of diagnosed HIV infection among adults aged 15-59 years by residential deprivation: England, 2011Key findings: HIV in the United Kingdom, 2011
  • An estimated 96,000 (90,800-102,500) people were living with HIV.
  • The overall prevalence in 2011 was 1.5 per 1,000 population with the highest rates reported among men who have sex with men (MSM) (47 per 1,000) and the black African community (37 per 1,000).
  • 24% (18%-30%) were unaware of their infection.
  • 6,280 people were newly diagnosed with HIV in the UK.
  • Measures of incidence show HIV transmission is in MSM remains high.
  • Over half of heterosexuals probably acquired their HIV infection in the UK compared to 27% in 2002.
  • Less than 1% of infants born to women diagnosed with HIV prior to delivery acquired perinatal infection in 2010/2011.
  • Key findings: HIV in the United Kingdom, 2011
  • The proportion of late diagnoses remained high (47%) in spite of a slow but significant decline over the last decade.
  • Rates of new HIV diagnoses and HIV prevalence continue to be significantly higher in London than elsewhere in the UK.
  • 73,660 people living with a diagnosed HIV infection received care, representing a 58% increase since 2002.
  • The most deprived areas in the UK also have the highest diagnosed HIV prevalence; this health inequality is particularly evident in London.
  • Access to HIV medical care and the quality of care available in the UK is excellent, with 88% of people for whom treatment was indicated receiving ART.
  • Key findings: HIV in the United Kingdom, 2011
  • The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among people diagnosed with HIV has declined over the past decade.
  • 70% of STI clinic attendees received an HIV test with highest coverage among MSM (83%).
  • Almost two-thirds of MSM newly diagnosed as HIV-infected at an STI clinic had not attended that clinic for testing in the previous three years.
  • There has been very little commissioning of routine HIV testing in general medical admissions and general practice settings.
  • In the UK, a trial to investigate the public health effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis in preventing HIV transmission among MSM has begun.
  • Recommendations
  • Safe sex programmes promoting condom use and HIV testing remain a priority for MSM and black African and Caribbean communities to reduce ongoing transmission and undiagnosed infection.
  • HIV testing, which is free and confidential at services such as STI clinics, should be promoted among higher risk groups to ensure individuals are aware of their HIV status. Specifically:
  • MSM should have an HIV/STI screen at least annually, and every three months if having unprotected sex with new or casual partners.
  • Black Africans and Caribbeans should have an HIV test and should have regular HIV/STI screening if having unprotected sex with new or casual partners.
  • Recommendations
  • The Public Health Outcomes Framework includes the late HIV diagnosis indicator.  All local authorities and National Health Service (NHS) bodies can reduce late HIV diagnoses through using their Joint Strategic Needs Assessment, to prioritise and inform the provision of appropriate HIV testing services.
  • Local authorities and NHS bodies, with a diagnosed HIV prevalence greater than two per 1,000 population of 15-59 years, can implement routine HIV testing for all general medical admissions as well as new registrants in primary care.
  • Clinicians should take every opportunity to offer and recommend HIV testing to those known to be at higher risk of HIV infection. Every effort should be made to reduce health service barriers to HIV testing.
  • Recommendations
  • A universal offer of an HIV test should be given to all patients diagnosed with TB and all people living with HIV should be routinely screened for TB.
  • The evidence that ART reduces the risk of onward transmission should be discussed with all people receiving HIV care. ART should be started for those with a CD4 cell count >350 cells/mm3 who wish to reduce the risk of transmission to their sexual partners, in line with the 2012 BHIVA guidelines.
  • Monitoring of key clinical indicators should continue in order to ensure the current high quality of HIV medical care is maintained.
  • AcknowledgementsWe gratefully acknowledge the continuing collaboration of clinicians, microbiologists, immunologists, public health practitioners, occupational health doctors and nurses and other colleagues who contribute to the surveillance of HIV and STIs in the UK.Also members of the UK Collaborative Group for HIV and STI surveillance (listed in surveillance report)
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