Group B-4

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    INTEGRATED DESIGN PROJECT JANUARY 2019 SEMESTER CDB 2013 SEPARATION PROCESS I CDB 2043 REACTION ENGINEERING PREPARED BY: GROUP B4 ONG WEI HANG 24819 HATEEM BIN FEROZE 25178 NUR FAZREEN ADLENA BINTI RAHMAN 25383 MUHAMMAD ANWAR BIN HAIZAL 25202 HAMSHA VATHANA RAJENDRAN 17009523 PREPARED FOR: DR KHAIRIRAIHANNA BT JOHARI DR LAM MAN KEE DR MUHAMMAD AYOUB DR AQSHA AQSHA  1 TABLE OF CONTENTS  No. Content Page 1. Executive Summary 2-3 2. Chapter 1: Introduction 4-7 3. Chapter 2: Process Flow Diagram and Simulation 8-14 4. Chapter 3: Separation Process I 15-18 5. Chapter 4: Reaction Engineering 19-26 6. Chapter 5: Conclusion 27 7. Chapter 6: References 28-29 8. Appendix 30-33  2 Executive Summary The Integrated Design Project for the Chemical Engineering students in the January 2019 semester integrates the knowledge gained and the application of the knowledge from the two courses undertaken during this semester that is: Separation Process I and Reaction Engineering. The task of this project is to design a process plant to produce 37% formalin from methanol. Students are required to design the process flow diagram, calculate the mass balance, run simulation on HYSYS and finally design a catalytic reactor system with suitable calculations,  justifications and assumptions for the Reaction Engineering part of this project whereas for the Separation Process I part, the number of stages of one separation unit must be calculated and determined and compared with the simulated results. According to Amin, Islam, Imtiaz, Saeed and Unaiza (n.d.), formaldehyde is produced from the exothermic oxidation and endothermic hydrogenation of methanol. There are two main routes for formaldehyde production which are oxidation-dehydrogenation process using a silver catalyst which involves both the complete or incomplete conversion of methanol; and also the direct oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde using metal oxide catalysts which is  being carried out in this Integrated Design Project. In the oxidation-dehydrogenation route, vaporized methanol with air is passed over a thin bed of silver-crystal catalyst at about 650ºC. Formaldehyde is then formed by the dehydrogenation of methanol. The other route which is the focus route involves the oxidation of methanol over a catalyst of molybdenum and iron at 350ºC. The yield from the reaction is 88 to 92 percent with conversion of 99 percent. The catalyst is easily poisoned so stainless-steel equipment must be used to protect the catalyst from metal contamination. Another method of producing formaldehyde is through the oxidation of hydrocarbon gases. An increase in the amount produced of formaldehyde is expected in this  process. However, the hydrocarbon formaldehyde is usually obtained as dilute solution which is not economically concentrated. The metal oxide catalyst reaction process is also known as the FORMOX process. FORMOX is a registered trademark owned by Johnson Matthew and is an abbreviation for Formaldehyde  by Oxidation. According to Sanoob, Al-Sulami, Al-Shehri and Al-Rasheedi (2012), the first  3 commercial plant for the production of formaldehyde using the iron-molybdenum oxide catalyst was put into action in 1952. Unlike the silver based catalyst process, the iron-molybdenum oxide catalyst makes formaldehyde from the exothermic reaction entirely. The advantage of this process compared to the silver based catalyst is the absence of the distillation column to separate unreacted methanol and formaldehyde product after the reaction in the reactor. It also has a life span of 12 to 18 months, which is larger than the sliver catalyst. However, the disadvantage of this process design is the need for significantly large equipment to accommodate the increased flow of gases (3 times larger) compared to the srcinal silver catalyst process design. This increase in equipment sizing obviously increases the construction cost of the reactor making it less feasible to be used. The reactions that are undergone in the reactor for the FORMOX process are as follows: CH 3 OH + ½ O 2   ➔  HCHO + H 2 O HCHO + ½ O 2   ➔  CO + H 2 O
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