Figures of Speech

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FIGURES OF SPEECH RHERORIC: The term Rhetoric owes its origin to Greek RHETORIC which means a public speaker. It literally means the art of public speaker or public speaking and is deemed essential to oratory. It consists in an oratory s particular mood of speaking whereby he or she is capable of impressing his or her audience in an effective way. FIGURES OF SPEECH:The rhetorical ornaments in rich simple and correct statements are clothed are called Figures of Speech . The figurative language is
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    FIGURES OF SPEECH RHERORIC: - The term Rhetoric owes its srcin to Greek RHETORIC which means a public speaker. It literally meansthe art of public speaker or public speaking and is deemed essential to oratory. It consists in an oratorysparticular mood of speaking whereby he or she is capable of impressing his or her audience in aneffective way. FIGURES OF SPEECH:- The rhetorical ornaments in rich simple and correct statements are clothed are called Figures of Speech.The figurative language is however distinguished from literal language, whereas the later reposes on thestandard uses or significances in the language, the format is founded on the decorative or ornamentalaspects of the language. DIVISIONS:- There are generally seven classes of figure of speech, 1>   Figure based on Similarity :-a)   Simile: - The simile refers to the clear detection of the point of similarity between two objects,different in nature, by the word like or as.Example: - Red as rose is she.The burglar moves as cat. b)   M etaphor: - The metaphor is an informal or implied simile. Here the words as, so, like, etc which areused in simile to show clearly the likeness between two things different in kind, are dropped.   Example: - The camel is the ship of the desert.I will drink life to the lies. SI M ILE AND M ETAPHOR Both the simile and metaphor institute a comparison or show a similarity between two things or subjectdifferent in kind but the comparison is not met in the same way I them. In the former, the likeness isclearly shown by the employment of the words like, as etc. But in the metaphor, the imbalance betweenthe things or subjects is kept employed.      )   ALLEGORY: - The allegory like the simile and metaphor is a comparison between two differentsubjects. But the comparison is not short. It is made prolonged through numerous detains commonto the subject compare in an allegory. In fact the comparison between the subjects forms a story.The story has an interest of its own and contains a moral. The moral may be to religions, ethics,politics or even societies.  d)   PARABLE: - The parable is mostly a short allegory. It aims at teachings a moral. This is, in fact a shortnarrative that has an implicit but details analogy. It may be defines as an allegorical story intendedfor enforcing a high moral lesson.  2>   Figure based on association:-a)   M ETONY M Y: - The term metonymy comes from Greek word Meta (change) and Onama (Name).As the very name signifies (change of name). This figure consists in the substitution of the nameof one thing for tat of another.  Example: - The pen is mightier than the swordThe press of India has great power.The idiot box is on demand.England needs you.I am reading Shakespeare. b)   SYNECDOCHE: - The synecdoche (literary means to understanding of anything for another) is likemetonymy consists in the substitution of one name for another associated with it. In this figureone thing is meant while some other things associated with it, is set.Example: - All states can reach it, and all hands conceive.No useless coffins enclosed his breast.    M etonymy and Synecdoche Both the metonymy and synecdoche comprised different moods where by one thing is substituted byanother, associated with it. In both the figures one thing is set another is meant, while there exists arelation between the things name and things meant. M ETONY M Y SYNECDOCHE1)  -------------------------------------Substitution.-------------------------------   2)  -------------------------Relationship between the two.-------------------   3) Name of relation ------- -----------------------------------  Intimate relation.c)   TRANSFERRED EPITHET (ADJECTIVE): - This figure refers to the shifting or transfer of an epithetfrom its proper subject to another associated with it. The transferred epithet is the result of thementor operator of the writer or speaker.   Example: - She had a wary look on her partner.He passed busy life. d)   ALLUSION: - This figure of speech is a word of  expression used to recall to some notablecharacter, memorable event, writing or saying of the past.   Example: - It may be that we will see the Achilles. 3>   Figure based on contrast or difference: -a)   ANTITHESIS: - It is a figure of speech in which the contrasted words or ideas are placed togetherin a balanced form, for the sake of emphasis. According to Nesfield this figure consists in anexpressive statement of an implied contrast.   Example: - Man is the heater of truth, a lover of fiction.Better to reign in hell; than serve in haven. (Milton) b)   EPIGRA M : - The epigram is an apparent contradiction in language, which, by causing atemporary shock rouses our tension, every body, attention, to some important meaningunderneath.   Example: - Failures are the pillars of success.The king is dead, long live the king.The child is the father of man. c)   Oxymoron: - The oxymoron is generally described as the extreme form of epigram, where thetwo contradictory words are juxtaposed or placed side by side.   Example: - He is regularly irregular.Life is better sweet.It is an open secret matter. d)   PARADOX: - The paradox is a statement in apparent contradiction and at the first reading mayseen absurd or impossible but is found on a careful examination to express a striking truth.   Example: - None in so poor as a wealthy miser.Loves quarrel is the renewal of love.Silence is sometime more eloquent than word.The golden rule is that there is no golden rule. e)   CLI M AX: - The term climax comes from Greece. Greek Klimax which means a ladder. Thefundamental thing in this figure of speech is to arrange a series of words or ideas in the rungs of ladder. It runs from lower steps so ideas or thoughts gradually rise to greater importance.   Example: - I came, I saw, I conquered.We will hear you, we will follow you, we will die for you.Some books are to be tested, some are to be swallowed and some few to be chewed anddigested. f)   Anti-CLI M AX or BATHOS: - The opposite of the climax is generally known as the anti-climax. Of course there is exactly no gradual distant but rather a sudden fall.   Example: - He lost his wife, his child, his goods and his dog.She always carries her husband in one hand and dog in the other.
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