Exp 2 Dry Fractionation of RBD

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  EXPERIMENT No.2 DRY FRACTIONATION of RBD OIL 1 Bachelor in Biosystem Engineering Technology 1.0 INTRODUCTION The dry fractionation plant in Appendix l is used to separate the palm olein and palm stearin from the RBDPO produced by physical treatment. The RBDPO is passed through the further fractionation process to get various grade of palm olein and palm stearin. Usually, there are three types of olein are produced: (1) normal grade olein, (2) super grade olein and (3) olein with cloud point 7 - 8°e. 2.0   PROCESS DESCRIPTION 2.1 Crystallization Process Firstly, the RBDPO feed must pass the quality specification, color <2.6R and FFA< 0.075 is fed into the heat exchanger. The RBDPO feed is heated up by hot waters around 75°C. After that the oil is kept homogenized at about 70°C in homogenizes before the start of crystallization. The idea is to destroy any crystals present and to induce crystallization in a controlled manner in the crystallizer. After that, the oil is pumped to the crystallizer (Appendix 2). The crystallization system is a batch type and is equipped with special crystallizers operating alternatively. These crystallizers are made up of vertical cylindrical vessel full of thermo-regulated water which submerged barrels containing the oil to be fractionated: each of these barrels is fitted with a mechanical agitator. An automatic station controls the temperature in the various crystallizers. The crystallization process is carried out to remove the higher melting glycerides which cause liquid oils to become cloudy and more viscous at low temperature. There are 3 factors (temperature, time and agitation), have a fundamental importance on the formation and character of the crystal: 1.   The lowering of temperature causes, because of supersaturating the higher melting component to separate from a solution. 2.   Agitation facilitates the formation of small crystals. 3.   Time with a gradual decrease in temperature and stillness, promotes the formation of longer crystals. 2.2   Filtration Process After the crystallization process, the slurry from buffer tank passes through the filtration  process for the physical separation (Appendix 3) between RBD palm stearin and RBD palm olein. Presently, the membrane filter is used for this filtration. Another alternative for this  purpose is by employing drum filter for separation. The membrane filter is pressure filter  EXPERIMENT No.2 DRY FRACTIONATION of RBD OIL 2 Bachelor in Biosystem Engineering Technology where the filter pack comprising alternatively plates and frames, or a series of chamber is compressed between one fixed and one movable cover or bulkhead. The filter media are located between each individual element. Cake will build up in the hollow space between the elements and fall out of the press when the filter pack is opened. Composition of the filter  pack is by means of electrically driven hydraulic system (75 bar), which controls the entire mechanical parts of units, head plates, filter plates, plate shifting device with the built in  panel board. 3.0   METHODOLOGY 3.1 Plant Description The dry fractionation pilot plant is used to produce a liquid fraction (olein) and a solid fraction (stearin) from palm oil through crystallization and filtration. The pilot plant is designed for batch processing at a capacity of 12 kg/batch and comprises the following main components (refer to flow sheet R225P022 for tag number and description): 1.   Crystallizer with agitator and cooling coil. 2.   Filtration system with filtration pump and membrane filter press. 3.   Olein discharge pump and stearin melting tank. 4.   Chilled water system and hot water system. 3.2 Plant Operation 1.   The following raw material, preheated to 45°C, is required: a)   RBD palm oil in storage tank T704 2.   The following utilities are required: a) Tap water for chilled water system and hot water system.  b) Steam at 2 barg for stearin melting. c) Compressed air at 5 barg for control valve and cake squeezing. 3.   Fill the chilled water tank with tap water and switch on the packaged chiller unit to  produce chilled water at about 10°C. 4.   Fill hot water tank TIl3 with tap water and switch on electrical heating element HTIl3 to produce hot water at about 90°C. Set the water temperature at temperature controller TIC 113. 5.   Set the cooling program for crystallizer TIll at temperature controller TIC 111. 6.   Start pump P704 (located at the storage tank area) and feed oil from the storage tank to crystallizer TIll. At high level HLAIIl, stop pump P704 and start mixer AG 111. Use the frequency inverter to adjust the mixer speed. 7.   Starts pump PlIO and circulate water in the cooling coil of crystallizer TIll. Set the water temperature (80-85°C) at temperature controller TIC Ill. 8.   Start pump P113 and feed hot water from hot water tank TIl3 to the cooling coil of  EXPERIMENT No.2 DRY FRACTIONATION of RBD OIL 3 Bachelor in Biosystem Engineering Technology crystallizer TIll to heat the oil to about 70°C. Maintain the oil at this temperature and under agitation for    at least 10 min to melt and homogenize the oil. 9.   At the end of the homogenizing time, start the cooling program at temperature controller TIC 111. Switch over pump P1l3 to the chilled water tank and feed chilled water to the cooling coil of crystallizer TIll to cool the oil according to the cooling  program. 10.   At the end of the cooling program as indicated by the end-of-cycle alarm, the oil in crystallizer TIll is ready for    filtration. 11.   Close filter FIll, start pump PIll and filter the oil through filter FIll. The liquid fraction (olein) flows into olein tank TI14 while the solid fraction (stearin) forms a cake in the filter chambers. The filter chambers are full when the feeding  pressure reaches 2 barg. 12.   Stops pump PIll and start squeezing the stearin cakes by feeding compressed air to filter FIll and inflating the rubber membranes. Olein trapped in the stearin cakes is squeezed out and flows into olein tank T 114 thus drying the stearin cakes. 13.   After squeezing, release compressed air in the squeezing lines into the feed channel (core) of filter Fill to blow the feed channel (core) clear of oil. Open the  pressure release valve of filter Fill to further reduce the internal pressure to zero (atmospheric). 14.   When it is confirmed that there is zero pressure in the feed and squeezing lines, release the hydraulic closing pressure and open filter F5ll. Remove the stearin cakes from the filter chambers and drop them into stearin tank T1l5. Start steam flow to the internal heating coil of stearin tank TIl5 to melt the stearin cakes. 15.   Repeat filtration (Steps 11 to 14) if there is still oil in crystallizer TIll. 16.   When crystallizer TIll is empty, stop mixer AGlll, pump PlIO and pump P113. Switch off the packaged chiller unit and electrical heating element HTI13. Stop the temperature controllers. 17.   Starts pump P114 and transfer the oil in olein tank TIl4 to the next processing stage. When olein tank TIl4 is empty, stop pump P114. 18.   Open the drain valve of stearin tank TIl5 and transfer the oil to the next processing stage. Stop steam flow. 19.   Empty the pipelines by opening the drain valve at the pump.  EXPERIMENT No.2 DRY FRACTIONATION of RBD OIL 4 Bachelor in Biosystem Engineering Technology Set your recipes based on diagram below: Table of data : Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3 Starting set point (SSP1) in o C Target set point (TSP1) in o C Time in minutes 3.3   Description The quality parameters normally monitored for fractionation are Iodine Value (IV). By definition, iodine value is the number of centigrams of iodine absorbed per gram of sample. While the method provides good accuracy and precision when applied to normal fatty acids, analysts must be careful to follow procedures exactly, as small deviations in sample size, reagents and time of reaction will definitely affect the accuracy and precision of the method. IV represents the degree of saturation of an oil or fat. Lower IV means the oil is of high saturation and vice versa. Normally the IV for RBD paIm oil is 52 and IV for palm olein is 56. The efficiency of the plant is measured by the production yield. The yield is calculated as: Production Yield = Weight of olein produced x 100% Weight of RBDPO feed
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