Erromangan Adjectives

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1 Erromangan Adjectives Crowley, T. (1998). An Erromangan (Sye) grammar. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 27: 144 ² 151. Adjectives are forms which express stative attributes to nouns, and which follow a nominal head in a noun phrase. They differ from verbs in that while verbs receive prefixed inflectional marking for a variety of pronominal and other categories, adjectives have no inflectional marking for these categories. 1.1 Underived Adjectives Less than sixty underived adjectives h
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  1 Erromangan Adjectives Linggwistiks 190. Manahan  Erromangan Adjectives C rowley, T. (1998). An Erromangan (Sye) grammar. Oce  ani  c  Linguisti  c  s Sp ec  ial Publi  c  ations  27: 144 ² 151.  Adjectives are forms which express stative attributes to nouns, and which follow a nominal head in a nounphrase. They differ from verbs in that while verbs receive prefixed inflectional marking for a variety of pronominal and other categories, adjectives have no inflectional marking for these categories. 1.1 Underived Adjectives L ess than sixty underived adjectives have been attested in Sye, with most stative attributes being expressedeither by means of intransitive verbs, or adjectives that are morphologically derived. Some of the morecommonly encountered underived adjectives appear in antonymous pairs, for example armai  'good' and ur   'bad', sais  'fantastic, attractive' and it  c  omovki  'appalling', orog  'big' and viro c  'little', nivorih  'huge' and vilkih  'tiny', mampum  'first' and avni  'last', ndomo 'hard, difficult, strong' and m  e  lu  c  lu  c  'soft, easy, weak', tantop 'long, tall' and  pot  c  on  'short', inpalam  'deep' and ikri  'shallow', m  e  v  e  h  'right' and mor  'left'. However, there is a substantial residueof adjectives which do not belong to semantically related pairs of this type, for example tompor  'holy', umro c  ri  'lame', morihai  'strange', itsogku  'whole'. Some of these forms, in fact, have antonyms or semantically closely related forms that are expressed as verbs. The class of adjectives is somewhat difficult to delimit absolutely inSye. All of the forms just presented can behave adjectivally in that they can follow a noun in a nominal phraseor they can function as a comment in a non-verbal clause. However, there is a certain amount of overlap withspecific adjectives between the class of adjectives and other word classes. Thus, for example, inpalam  'deep'and ikri  'shallow' can also function as locational nouns, meaning 'deep place' and 'shore' respectively. Adjectives such as nimtipat  'blind', nt  e  lgipat  'deaf and nompw  e  hri  'bald' can also function as common nouns,meaning 'blind person', 'deaf person' and 'bald person' respectively. The adjectives viro c  'small' and  pot  c  on  'short' correspond to the formally similar verbs e  viro c    and ompot  c  on  respectively. 1.2 Adjectival Derivation  W  hile there is a relatively small set of underived adjectives, there is a variety of derivational means by whichnew adjectives can be productively derived. The following discussion describes these processes.(i) R  e  dupli  c  ation  Some underived adjectives can be reduplicated to derive an adjective expressing an intensification of the stateindicated by the root. Those adjectives which have been attested with reduplicated derivatives are tantop 'long,tall',  pot  c  on  'short', orog  'big', viro c  'small (SG)', ovro c  'small (P L  )', ndomo 'strong' and vilkih  'tiny'.  W  e therefore find,for example, viro c-  viro c  meaning 'very small', in contrast to viro c  'small'. The adverbial hogku  'also' can be followed by the misdirective suffix -   go that is normally only foundon verbs, with the suffixed form being obligatorily reduplicated as hogkugo -  hogkugo , to express the meaning of 'same'.(ii) Stativ  e  n- The prefix n  -  derives an adjective out of a stative verb, although it is also occasionally attested with non-stative intransitive verbs which can be associated with the expression of a state. Thus, from m  e  vya  c  'dream' wecan derive n  -  m  e  vya  c  'dreamy'. Adjectives derived in this way express stative attributes to the referent of an  2   Erromangan Adjectives Linggwistiks 190. Manahan  associated noun phrase. C ontrast the following, in which t  e  l  e  mt  e  'green' functions in the first example as a verband in the second example as an adjective :    N  ur  c  o -  nt  e  l  e  mt  e  . place 3sG :FU  T-BR  : green 'The place will be green.' Kok e  ml  -  ant  e  ra hai nur n  -  t  e  l  e  mt  e  . lP L .lN C L : PRES-MR  : live LO C INDE F place ADJ-green '  W  e live in a green place.' These derived forms behave further like adjectives in that they are negated with tawi.  Thus, contrast thefollowing, in which the verb aviar  'red' functions verbally in the first example, and adjectivally in the second :   Cotumnavlar (< c  o -e  tu  -e  m  e-  navlar). Tawi n  -  avlar. 3SG : RE C PAST-NEG-?A/-MR  : red NEG ADJ-red 'It is not red.' 'It is not red.'(iii) Chang  e  of Stat  e  itur- The prefix itur  -  can also be added to verbs to derive adjectives. itur  before consonants itr  -    before vowels This allomorphy is illustrated by derivations such as :   lau  'dry' > itur  -  lau  'dried', amon  'hide' > itr  -  amon  'hidden', omkai  'ripe' > itr  -  omkai  'ripened'.(iv) O rdinal  -gi O rdinal numerals can be derived from cardinals by the suffix -   gi  . The resulting derived ordinals are postposedto nouns in the same way as other adjectives. Thus, nduru  'two' > nduru  -   gi  'second', nd  e  h  e  l  'three' > nd  e  h  e  l  -   gi   'third', ndvat  'four' > ndvat  -   gi  'fourth', sukrim  'five' > sukrim  -   gi  'fifth'.(v) Distributiv  e  -go The suffix -   go can be added to numerals to express a distributive meaning, as in hait  e  n  'one' > hait  e  n  -   go 'oneeach, by itself, individual', nduru  'two' > nduru  -   go 'two each', nd  e  h  e  l  'three' > nd  e  h  e  l  -   go 'three each', ndvat  'four' > ndvat  -   go 'four each', sukrim  'five' > sukrim  -   go 'five each'. Thus :   Cu  -  vai magko nduru  -   go. 3P L : DlSTPAST-BR  : get mango two-DlST 'They got two mangoes each.'(vi) Int  e  nsiv  e    -veh  3   Erromangan Adjectives Linggwistiks 190. Manahan   The suffix -  v  e  h  is productively added to adjectives to indicate that the state has been fully or properly achieved. Thus, armai  'good' > armai  -  v  e  h  'very good', tantop 'long' > tantop -  v  e  h  'very long'.(vii) Vestigial Affixes There is a handful of adjectival formatives which appear to be vestigial in that they are each only attested witha small number of examples. The form ndomo 'strong' involves the addition of the suffix -  su  to expressintensification, with ndomosu  meaning 'very strong'. The prefix it  -  has been attested with a handful of wordsderiving adjectives from words coming from a variety of word classes. Nouns which can be made intoadjectives in this way include natman  'man' > itnatman  'male (SG)', ovatman  'men' > it  -  ovatman  'male (P L  )', nahiv  e  n  'woman' > it  -  nahiv  e  n  'female (SG)', ovahiv  e  n  'women' > it  -  ovahiv  e  n  'female (P L  )'. Temporal adverbs referring to days in the past from the present can also be prefixed with it  -  to deriveadjectives referring to food leftover from previous days, for example ninu  'yesterday' > it  -  ninu  'yesterday's(food)', nom  e  'day before yesterday' > it  -  nom  e    'day before yesterday's (food)'. The interrogative nominal s  e  'what'corresponds in shape to it  -  s  e  'which' (though the more commonly encountered form expressing this meaning is ito c  o  ). There is a single derivation of this form from an adjectival root, that is viro c  'small' > it  -  viro c  '(of sibling) younger'. There are two transitive verbs that have been attested with this prefix (with the verbsappearing in their construct forms), that is e  l  c  av  -  'touch' > it  -e  l  c  av  -  i  'polluted by menstruation', e  n  -  'eat' > it  -e  n  -  i   'edible'. F inally, there is a small number of other adjectives that begin with it  -  which may historically reflectthis prefix, though the derivation is no longer synchronically productive. Thus, v  e  lom  'come' > it  -   p e  lom  'easy'and v  e  la  c  'go ahead' > it  -   p e  la  c  'unique'. Not only is there an unpredictable change from initial v  -  to  p -  , but themeanings of the derived forms are also semantically unpredictable. The prefix un  -  has been attested in the derivation of a handful of adjectives referring to the state thatis characteristic of the environment referred to by the root. Thus, nu  'river' > u  -  nu  'riverine', nto c  'sea' > u  -  nto c   'marine', nam  'talk' > u  -  nam  'resolute, firm'. This function of  un  -  is clearly historically related to the semi-productive use of the prefix in the derivation of locational nouns.(viii) Compounding    There is a small number of adjectives that are derived by compounding a bound nominal root with afollowing verb root. Thus, nompu  -  'head' + e  hri  'break' > nompw  e  hri  'bald', nimt  e-  'eye' + ei 'blind' > nimtei 'blind', nimt  e-  'eye' + e  vivat  'thick' > nimt  e  vivat  'angry-looking'. 1.3 Plural Marking Morphologically simple adjectives accompanying a noun obligatorily agree with the noun for number, whilederived adjectives optionally distinguish singular and plural forms. The formal means by which plurality ismarked also varies according to whether the adjective is underived or derived.  4   Erromangan Adjectives Linggwistiks 190. Manahan  (i) U  nd  e  riv  e  d Adj  ec  tiv  e  s    U nderived adjectives mark plurality by means of the suffix -   go (which also has a pluralizing function with arestricted set of nouns). This is optionally accompanied by the prefix ovn  -  .  W  hile this prefix also marks pluralnouns, as an adjectival pluralizer, it does not alternate with the preposed free form ovon  as we find with nouns.  W  e therefore find examples such as  pot  c  on  >  pot  c  ongo ~ ovnpot  c  ongo 'short', orog  > orogo ~ ovnorogo 'big', nmah  > nmahgo ~ ovnmahgo 'big'.(ii) D e  riv  e  d Adj  ec  tiv  e  s   Plurality with any of the derived adjectives is marked exclusively by means of the prefix ovn  -  . Thus :   ov  -  nautugo ovn  -  itr  -  a  c  o P L -knife P L -ADJ-BR  : sharp 'sharp knives'Such adjectives do not accept the suffix -   go , either on its own, or in conjunction with ovn  -  . Thus, the examplejust presented cannot appear as :   *  ov  -  nautugo ovn  -  itr  -  a  c  o -   go P L -knife P L -ADJ-BR  : sharp-P L  
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