Drug Fact Sheet

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Drug Fact Sheet Amphetamines Overview Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up the body’s system. Many are legally prescribed and used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Street names Bennies, Black Beauties, Crank, Ice, Speed, Uppers Looks like Amphetamines can look like pills or powder. Common prescription amphetamines include methylphenidate (Ritalin® or Ritalin SR® ), amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall® ), and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine® ). Methods of abu
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   Amphetamines Overview  Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up the body ’ s system.Many are legally prescribed and used to treat attention-deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Street names Bennies, Black Beauties, Crank, Ice, Speed, Uppers Looks like  Amphetamines can look like pills or powder. Common prescription amphetamines include methylphenidate (Ritalin ® or Ritalin SR ® ),amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall ® ),and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine ® ). Methods of abuse  Amphetamines are generally taken orally or injected. However, the addition of  “ ice, ” the slang name of crystallizedmethamphetamine hydrochloride, has promoted smoking as another mode of administration. Just as “ crack ” issmokable cocaine, “ ice ” is smokable methamphetamine. Affect on mind The effects of amphetamines and methamphetamine are similar to cocaine, but their onset is slower and their durationis longer. In contrast to cocaine, which is quickly removed from the brain and is almost completely metabolized,methamphetamine remains in the central nervous system longer, and a larger percentage of the drug remainsunchanged in the body, producing prolonged stimulant effects. Chronic abuse produces a psychosis that resemblesschizophrenia and is characterized by: Paranoia, picking at the skin, preoccupation with one ’ s own thoughts, andauditory and visual hallucinations. Violent and erratic behavior is frequently seen among chronic abusers of amphetamines and methamphetamine. Affect on body Physical effects of amphetamine use include increased blood pressure and pulse rates, insomnia, loss of appetite, andphysical exhaustion. Drugs causing similar effects Drugs that cause similar effects include: dexmethylphendiate, phentermine, benzphetamine, phendimetrazine, cocaine,crack, methamphetamine, and khat. Overdose effects Overdose effects include agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, and possible death. Legal status in the United States  Amphetamines are Schedule II stimulants, which means that they have a high potential for abuse and limited medicaluses. Pharmaceutical products are available only through a prescription that cannot be refilled. Common places of srcin  Amphetamine was first marketed in the 1930s as Benzedrine ® in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion.By 1937 amphetamine was available by prescription in tablet form and was used in the treatment of the sleepingdisorder, narcolepsy, and ADHD. Over the years, the use and abuse of clandestinely produced amphetamines havespread. Today, clandestine laboratory production of amphetamines has mushroomed, and the abuse of the drug hasincreased dramatically. Drug Fact Sheet Drug Enforcement Administration   ã For more information, visit www.dea.gov   Barbiturates Overview Barbiturates are depressants that produce a wide spectrum of central nervous system depression from mild sedation to coma.Barbiturates are depressants that produce a wide spectrum of central nervous system depression from mild sedation to coma.They have also been used as sedatives, hypnotics, anesthetics,and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates are classified as Ultrashort,Short, Intermediate, Long-acting. Street names Barbs, Block Busters, Christmas Trees, Goof Balls, Pinks, Red Devils, Reds & Blues, Yellow Jackets Looks like Barbiturates come in a variety of multicolored pills and tablets. Abusers prefer the short-acting and intermediatebarbiturates such as Amytal ® and Seconal ® . Methods of abuse Barbiturates are abused by swallowing a pill or injecting a liquid form. Barbiturates are generally abused to reduceanxiety, decrease inhibitions, and treat unwanted effects of illicit drugs. Barbiturates can be extremely dangerousbecause overdoses can occur easily and lead to death. Affect on mind Barbiturates cause mild euphoria, lack of inhibition, relief of anxiety and sleepiness. Higher doses cause impairment of memory, judgment and coordination, irritability, and paranoid and suicidal ideation. Tolerance develops quickly andlarger doses are then needed to produce the same effect, increasing the danger of an overdose. Affect on body Barbiturates slow down the central nervous system and cause sleepiness. Drugs causing similar effects Drugs with similar effects include alcohol, benzodiazepines like Valium ® and Xanax ® ,tranquilizers, sleeping pills,Rohypnol ® ,and GHB. Overdose effects Effects of overdose include shallow respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, and possibledeath. Legal status in the United States Barbiturates are Schedule II, III, and IV depressants under the Controlled Substances Act.  Common places of srcin Barbiturates were first introduced for medical use in the 1900s, and today about 12 substances are in medical use.   Drug Fact Sheet Drug Enforcement Administration   ã For more information, visit www.dea.gov     authority to control three synthetic stimulants that are used to make bath salts, including: Mephedrone, 3,4methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and Methylone. Except as authorized by law, this action makes possessing andselling these chemicals, or the products that contain them, illegal in the United States. This emergency action wasnecessary to prevent an imminent threat to the public safety. The temporary scheduling action will remain in effect for at least one year while the DEA and the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) further studywhether these chemicals should be permanently controlled. As a result of this order, these synthetic stimulants aredesignated as Schedule I substances under the Controlled Substances Act. Schedule I status is reserved for thosesubstances with a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted use for treatment in the United States and a lack of  Bath Salts or Designer Cathinones (SyntheticStimulants) Overview Synthetic stimulants that are marketed as “ bath salts ” are often found in a number of retail products. These syntheticstimulants are chemicals. The chemicals are synthetic derivatives of cathinone, a central nervous system stimulant,which is an active chemical found naturally in the khat plant. Mephedrone and MDPV (3-4 methylene-dioxypyrovalerone) are two of the designer cathinones most commonly found in these “ bath salt ” products. Many of these products are sold over the Internet, in convenience stores, and in “ head shops. ” Street names Bilss, Blue Silk, Cloud Nine, Drone, Energy-1, Ivory Wave, Lunar Wave, Meow Meow, Ocean Burst, Pure Ivory, PurpleWave, Red Dove, Snow Leopard, Stardust, Vanilla Sky, White Dove, White Knight, White Lightening Looks like “ Bath salt ” stimulant products are sold in powder form in small plastic or foil packages of 200 and 500 milligrams under various brand names. Mephedrone is a fine white, off-white, or slightly yellow-colored powder. It can also be found intablet and capsule form. MDPV is a fine white or off-white powder. Methods of abuse “ Bath salts ” are usually ingested by sniffing/snorting. They can also be taken orally, smoked, or put into a solution andinjected into veins. Affect on mind People who abuse these substances have reported agitation, insomnia, irritability, dizziness, depression, paranoia,delusions, suicidal thoughts, seizures, and panic attacks. Users have also reported effects including impairedperception of reality, reduced motor control, and decreased ability to think clearly. Affect on body Cathinone derivatives act as central nervous system stimulants causing rapid heart rate (which may lead to heartattacks and strokes), chest pains, nosebleeds, sweating, nausea, and vomiting. Drugs causing similar effects Drugs that have similar effects include: amphetamines, cocaine, Khat, LSD, and MDMA. Overdose effects These substances are usually marketed with the warning “ not intended for human consumption. ”  Any time that usersput uncontrolled or unregulated substances into their bodies, the effects are unknown and can be dangerous. Legal status in the United States On Friday, October 21, 2011, DEA published a final order in the Federal Register exercising its emergency scheduling Drug Fact Sheet Drug Enforcement Administration   ã For more information, visit www.dea.gov   Benzodiazepines Overview Benzodiazepines are depressants that produce sedation, inducesleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and prevent seizures. Street names Benzos, Downers Looks like The most common benzodiazepines are the prescription drugsValium ® ,Xanax ® ,Halcion ® ,Ativan ® ,and Klonopin ® .Tolerance can develop, although at variable rates and to differentdegrees. Shorter-acting benzodiazepines used to manage insomnia include estazolam (ProSom ® ),flurazepam(Dalmane ® ),temazepam (Restoril ® ),and triazolam (Halcion ® ).Midazolam (Versed ® ),a short-acting benzodiazepine,is utilized for sedation, anxiety, and amnesia in critical care settings and prior to anesthesia. It is available in the UnitedStates as an injectable preparation and as a syrup (primarily for pediatric patients). Benzodiazepines with a longer duration of action are utilized to treat insomnia in patients with daytime anxiety. These benzodiazepines includealprazolam (Xanax ® ),chlordiazepoxide(Librium ® ),clorazepate (Tranxene ® ),diazepam (Valium ® ),halazepam(Paxipam ® ),lorzepam (Ativan ® ),oxazepam (Serax ® ),prazepam (Centrax ® ),and quazepam (Doral ® ).Clonazepam(Klonopin ® ),diazepam, and clorazepate are also used as anticonvulsants. Methods of abuse  Abuse is frequently associated with adolescents and young adults who take the drug orally or crush it up and snort it toget high. Abuse is particularly high among heroin and cocaine abusers. Affect on mind Benzodiazepines are associated with amnesia, hostility, irritability, and vivid or disturbing dreams. Affect on body Benzodiazepines slow down the central nervous system and may cause sleepiness. Drugs causing similar effects  Alcohol, barbiturates, sleeping pills, and GHB Overdose effects Effects of overdose include shallow respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, and possibledeath. Legal status in the United States Benzodiazepines are controlled in schedule IV of the Controlled Substance Act. Common places of srcin  Benzodiazepines are only legally available through prescription. Many abusers maintain their drug supply by gettingprescriptions from several doctors, forging prescriptions, or buying them illicitly. Alprazolam and diazepam are the twomost frequently encountered benzodiazepines on the illicit market.   Drug Fact Sheet Drug Enforcement Administration   ã For more information, visit www.dea.gov 
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