Black History in Canada teaching guide

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Black HIstory in Canada teaching guide
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  BLACK HISTORY   in   CANADA EDUCATION GUIDE The  HISTORICA-DOMINION INSTITUTE in partnership with   TD BANK GROUP  presents   2 a  MESSAGE  to  TEACHERS T he largest independent organization dedicated to Canadian history  , identity   and citizenship, The Historica-Dominion Institute is committed to bringing the storiesand experiences o Canada into the classroom. This innovative Education Guide exploresseminal events and personalities in Black Canadian history through engaging discussion andinteractive activities. It was made possible with the generous support o TD Bank Group, whosecommitment to Black history and culture has been celebrated. The purpose o this Guide is toenhance your students’ knowledge and appreciation o the Black Canadian experience, drawing rom Lawrence Hill’s award-winning historical ction, The Book of Negroes  , the remarkable journey o Aminata Diallo and the historic British document known as the “Book o Negroes.” Structuredaround themes o journey, slavery, human rights, passage to Canada and contemporary culture, thisGuide asks students to examine issues o identity, equality, community, and nation-building in botha historical and contemporary context. The tools provided here are supplemented with additionalactivities and resources at the Black History Portal blackhistorycanada.ca  . We hope this Guide willassist you in teaching this important aspect o Canadian history in your English, Social Studies,History or Law classroom.  A Message to Teachers 2 A Message from Lawrence Hill 3Synopsis of The Book of Negroes 3Black History in 4Canada Timeline Journey: The Story of 6 Aminata DialloSlavery and Human Rights 7Passage to Canada: 8Evaluating Historic Sources& Modern Stories of MigrationContemporary Culture 10 TABLE  of  CONTENTSTHE BLACKHISTORY PORTAL    a project of:Sponsored by:In partnership with: Find additional activities and resources on the Black History Portal  blackhistorycanada.ca   3 Lawrence Hill  a  MESSAGE   from    Award-Winning Author   LAWRENCE HILL T hese lines come from a letter written in 1763 to John Watts in New York. Who doyou think wrote the letter? Perhaps a armer in Barbados, South Carolina, or Virginia? Actually, this urgent request or slaves came rom James Murray, Governor o Quebec.The average sixteen-year-old in Canada can tell you something about slavery and abolition in theUnited States. Many o us have read American novels such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin , To Kill a Mockingbird  ,and Roots  .But have we read our own authors such as Dionne Brand, Aua Cooper and George Elliott Clarke? Do we know that the story o Arican-Canadians spans our hundred years, and includes slavery, abolition,pioneering, urban growth, segregation, the civil rights movement and a long engagement in civic lie?I wrote the novel The Book of Negroes  to remove the dehumanizing mask o slavery and to explore an Arican woman’s intimate experiences and emotions as she travels the world in the 18th century. I liketo think that there is a novel or every one o the 3,000 Black Loyalists whose names were entered intothe British naval ledger known as the “Book o Negroes” and who then – as a reward or service to theBritish on the losing side o the American Revolutionary War – were sent by ship rom Manhattan toNova Scotia in 1783. Imagining Aminata Diallo’s lie helped me appreciate the struggles o the 18thcentury Black Loyalists as they travelled back and orth across the Atlantic Ocean, touching down incolonial America, early Canada, West Arica and Europe in pursuit o reedom and home. Luckily or writers and readers, ction helps us see where we have been and who we are now. “  I  must earnestly entreat your assistance, without servants nothing can be done … Black Slaves are certainly the only  people to be depended upon … pray therefore if possible  procure for me two Stout Young fellows … [and] buy for each a clean young wife, who can wash and do the female ofces about a farm, I shall begrudge no price…”     L   I   S   A   S   A   K   U   L   E   N   K   S   Y Synopsis: The Book of Negroes  A  bducted as an 11-year-old child from her village in West Africa  and orced to walk or months to the sea in a cofe—a string o slaves—Aminata Diallo is sent to live as a slave in South Carolina. Years later, she orges her way to reedom, serving the British in theRevolutionary War and registering her name in the historic “Book o Negroes.” This book, an actualdocument, provides a short but immensely revealing record o some 3,000 Black Loyalists who letthe United States or resettlement in Nova Scotia. A trained bookkeeper, Aminata is enlisted to recordthe names o these Arican-Americans travelling to Nova Scotia in pursuit o land and a new way o lie. But when the Loyalists arrive in Canada in 1783, they nd that the haven they’d been seeking issteeped in an oppression all its own. Aminata is among the pioneers o Nova Scotia to settle Shelburne and the neighbouring Black community o Birchtown. Her journey rom slavery to liberation, and her struggle against a world hostileto her colour and her sex, speaks to the experience o a ounding generation o Arican-Canadians. Discussion Questions 1  How would you eel to be taken rom your homeland, never to return? 2  How is the concept o dislocation central to servitude in the experience o enslaved Aricanslike Aminata? 3  Consider the meaning o reedom. Is it signied by the absence o physical captivity, or arethere other requirements to true reedom?  1605  First Black in Canada  The rst Black person thought to have set ooton Canadian soil was Mathieu Da Costa, a reeman who was hired as a translator or Samuel deChamplain's 1605 excursion. 1709 Louis XIV Authorizes Slavery in New France King Louis XIV ormally authorized slavery, whenhe permitted his Canadian subjects to own slaves, in ull proprietorship. 1776  Free Negroes ReachNova Scotia  The British promised land, reedom and rightsto slaves and ree Blacks in exchange or serviceduring the American Revolution, 1775-1783. 26-27  J  uly 1784 Canada's First Race-RiotRocks Nova Scotia  The Black Loyalists were among the rstsettlers in Shelburne, Nova Scotia. On itsringes they established their own com-munity, Birchtown. When hundreds o  White, disbanded soldiers ound themselvescompeting or jobs with Black neighbours who were paid less or the same work,hostilities caused a riot. 1790  Imperial Statute   The Imperial Statute o 1790 eectively allowed settlers to bring enslaved personsto Upper Canada. Under the statute, theenslaved had only to be ed and clothed. 15  J  anuary 1792 The Black Loyalist Exodus The diculty o supporting themselves in the aceo widespread discrimination convinced almost1,200 Black Loyalists to leave Haliax and relocateto Arica (Sierra Leone). 19 J  une 1793 Lieutenant-Governor John GravesSimcoe's Anti-Slave Trade Bill    Attorney General White introduced Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe’s anti-slavery measure and it passed, although it was not a totalban on slavery but a gradual prohibition. 22 July 1796  The Maroons Land at Halifax  A group o 600 reedom-ghters called Maroonslanded at Haliax. These immigrants came rom the Jamaican community o escaped slaves, who hadguarded their reedom or more than a century andought o countless attempts to re-enslave them. 1812-1815  The Coloured Troops & the War of 1812 Thousands o Black volunteers ought or theBritish during the War o 1812. 1815 - 1860  The Underground Railroad Canada's reputation as a sae haven or Blacksgrew during and ater the War o 1812. Between1815 and 1860, tens o thousands o Arican- Americans sought reuge in Canada via thelegendary Underground Railroad. 28  A  ugust 1833 British Parliament Abolishes Slavery  Slavery was abolished throughout the Britishcolonies by an Imperial Act which became eec-tive 1 August 1834. Many Canadians continue tocelebrate August 1 as Emancipation Day. 26     F  ebruary 1851   Formation of Canadian Anti-Slavery Society  The number o abolitionistsympathizers grew in Canada in the 1850s-1860s. The Anti-Slavery Society o Canada wasormed, to aid in the extinctiono Slavery all over the world. BLACK HISTORY   4     “   V   I   E   W   O   F   T   H   E   F   U   L   I   T   O   W   N   A   N   D   P   L   A   N   T   A   T   I   O   N   S   A   B   O   U   T   I   T .   ”   A   N   E   X   A   M   P   L   E   O   F   A   N   A   F   R   I   C   A   N   V   I   L   L   A   G   E   /   T   R   A   C   Y   W .   M   C   G   R   E   G   O   R   L   I   B   R   A   R   Y   O   F   A   M   E   R   I   C   A   N   H   I   S   T   O   R   Y ,   U   N   I   V   E   R   S   I   T   Y   O   F   V   I   R   G   I   N   I   A   L   I   B   R   A   R   Y ,   ‘   B   E   D   F   O   R   D   B   A   S   I   N   N   E   A   R   H   A   L   I   F   A   X   ’ ,   C   A .  1   8  3   5 ,   B   Y   R   O   B   E   R   T   P   E   T   L   E   Y   /   L   I   B   R   A   R   Y   A   N   D   A   R   C   H   I   V   E   S   C   A   N   A   D   A ,   ‘   A   B   L   A   C   K   W   O   O   D   C   U   T   T   E   R   A   T   S   H   E   L   B   U   R   N   E ,   N   O   V   A   S   C   O   T   I   A  1  7   8   8   ’ ,   B   Y   W .   B   O   O   T   H .   /   W .   B   O   O   T   H   /   W .   H .   C   O   V   E   R   D   A   L   E   C   O   L   L   E   C   T   I   O   N ,   L   I   B   R   A   R   Y   A   N   D   A   R   C   H   I   V   E   S   C   A   N   A   D   A ,   B   L   A   C   K   F   L   E   E   T   F   R   O   M   N   O   V   A   S   C   O   T   I   A   E   N   R   O   U   T   E   T   O   F   R   E   E   T   O   W   N ,   S   I   E   R   R   A   L   E   O   N   E   S   K   E   T   C   H   E   D   B   Y   J   O   H   N   C   L   A   R   K   S   O   N   /   G   V   C   L   A   R   K   S   O   N ,   M   A   N   U   S   C   R   I   P   T   S ,   N   E   W  -   Y   O   R   K   H   I   S   T   O   R   I   C   A   L   S   O   C   I   E   T   Y ,   P   O   R   T   R   A   I   T   O   F   J   O   H   N   G   R   A   V   E   S   S   I   M   C   O   E   B   Y   J   E   A   N   L   A   U   R   E   N   T   M   O   S   N   I   E   R .   /   C   O   U   R   T   E   S   Y   O   F   T   O   R   O   N   T   O   P   U   B   L   I   C   L   I   B   R   A   R   Y   S   T   I   L   L   F   R   O   M   U   N   D   E   R   G   R   O   U   N   D   R   A   I   L   R   O   A   D   H   E   R   I   T   A   G   E   M   I   N   U   T   E   /   T   H   E   H   I   S   T   O   R   I   C   A  -   D   O   M   I   N   I   O   N   I   N   S   T   I   T   U   T   E
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