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  Republic of Armenia Հայաստանի   Հանրապետություն   Hayastani Hanra petut’yun   (Armenian)FlagCoat of arms Anthem: Մեր   Հայրենիք   Mer Hayrenik    Our Fatherland   Capital and largest cityYerevan 40°11′N 44°31′E Official languages Armenian [1] Ethnic groups (2011)98.1% Armenians Armenia Armenia  (/ ɑː r ˈ mi ː ni ə / (listen) ; [13]  Armenian: Հայաստան , translit.  Hayastan , IPA: [h ɑ  j ɑ s ˈ t ɑ n]), officially the Republic of Armenia  (Armenian: Հայաստանի   Հանրապետութ  յուն , translit.  Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun , IPA: [h ɑ  j ɑ st ɑˈ ni h ɑ n ɾɑ p ɛ tut ʰˈ  jun]), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Locatedin Western Asia [14][15]  on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto  independentRepublic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran andAzerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. [16] Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with anancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. TheKingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great inthe 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. [17][18][19]  The official date of state adoption of Christianity is301. [20]  The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between theByzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia wasrestored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against theByzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon afterinvaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Seabetween the 11th and 14th centuries.Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenianhomeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, EasternArmenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most ofthe western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remainedunder Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in theirancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematicallyexterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following theRussian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared theirindependence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to theestablishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the statewas incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative SovietRepublic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the SovietUnion. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transformingits constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Coordinates: 40°N 45°E   1.2% Yazidis 0.4% Russians 0.3% other [2][3] Religion Christianity [4] Demonym(s) Armenian Government Unitary parliamentaryrepublicã PresidentArmen Sarkissianã Prime MinisterNikol Pashinyanã President of theNational AssemblyArarat Mirzoyan Legislature National Assembly Establishment history ã Orontid dynasty6th century BCã Kingdom of Greater Armenia united underthe Artaxiad Dynasty [6] 190 BC [5] ã Arsacid dynasty52–428ã Bagratid Armenia885–1045ã Kingdom of Cilicia1198–1375ã First Republic ofArmenia declared28 May 1918ã Independence fromthe Soviet Union21 September 1991 Area  ã Total29,743 km 2 (11,484 sq mi)(138th)ã Water (%)4.71 [7] Population ã 2016 estimate2,924,816 [8] ã 2011 census 3,018,854 [9][10] (134th)ã Density101.5/km 2 (262.9/sq mi) (99th) GDP (PPP)2019 estimateã Total$31 billion [11] ã Per capita$10,572 [11] GDP (nominal)2019 estimateã Total$12 billion [11]  (132nd)ã Per capita$4,244 [11]  (116th) Gini (2016) 32.5 [12]  medium HDI (2017) 0.755 high · 83rd Currency Dram ( ֏ ) (AMD) Time zone UTC+4 (AMT) Driving side right Calling code +374 Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armeniabecame independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the SovietUnion.Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world'soldest national church, as the country's primary religiousestablishment. [21][22]  The unique Armenian alphabetwas invented byMesrop Mashtots in 405 AD.Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council ofEurope and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armeniasupports the de facto  independent Artsakh, which was proclaimed in1991. EtymologyHistory AntiquityMiddle AgesEarly Modern eraWorld War I and the Armenian GenocideFirst Republic of ArmeniaSoviet ArmeniaRestoration of independence Geography TopographyClimateEnvironment protection Government and politics Foreign relationsHuman rights and freedomMilitaryAdministrative divisions EconomyScience, technology, and education Science and technologyEducationHistoryRegulationSecondary educationTertiary educationMajor universitiesAmerican University of ArmeniaYerevan State Medical UniversityStatistics Demographics Ethnic groupsLanguagesCitiesReligionHealth Contents  Patron saint St. Gregory ISO 3166 code AM Internet TLD .am. հայ Culture MediaMusic and danceArtCinemaSportCuisine See alsoNotesSourcesReferencesExternal links The srcinal native Armenian name for the country was Հայք  (  Hayk’ ), however it is currently rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան  (  Hayastan ) became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan  (place).. However the srcinsof the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works ofAgathangelos, [23][24]  Faustus of Byzantium, [25][26]  Ghazar Parpetsi, [27]  Koryun, [28]  and Sebeos. [29] The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk ( Հայկ ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson ofNoah, who, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and establishedhis nation in the Ararat region. [30]  The further srcin of the name is uncertain. It is also further postulated [31][32]  that the name  Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫ ayaša-Azzi (1600–1200 BC).The exonym  Armenia  is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription (515 BC) as  Armina  ( ). The AncientGreek terms  Ἀ  ρμενία (  Armenía ) and  Ἀ  ρμένιοι (  Arménioi , Armenians ) are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 550 BC – c.476 BC). [33]  Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village lifeand hospitality in around 401 BC. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of thePersians. [34]  According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian,  Armenia  derives from the name of Aram,a lineal descendant of Hayk. [35][36]  The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphratesto the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of 'Arara. [37][38] Jubilees 8:21 also apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. [37][38]  Thehistorian Flavius Josephus also states in his Antiquities of the Jews, Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians;... Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis andDamascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; and Gather the Bactrians; andMesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini. [39] EtymologyHistory Antiquity  Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There isevidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating toabout 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cavecomplex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leathershoe, [40]  skirt, [41]  and wine-producing facility. [42] According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BCHayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along theEngil river to establish the very first Armenian state. Historically, this eventcoincides with the destruction of Akkad by the Gutian dynasty of Sumer in 2115BC, [43]  a time when Hayk may have left with the “more than 300 members of hishousehold” as told in the legend, and also during the beginning of when aMesopotamian Dark Age was occurring due to the fall of the Akkadian Empire in2154 BC which may have acted as a backdrop for the events in the legend makinghim leave Mesopotamia. [44] Several Bronze Age states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including theHittites (at the height of their power), Mitanni (southwestern historical Armenia),and Hayasa-Azzi (1500–1200 BC). The Nairi people (12th to 9th centuries BC) andUrartu (1000–600 BC) successively established their sovereignty over the ArmenianHighlands. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in theethnogenesis of the Armenians. [45][46][47][48]  A large cuneiform lapidary inscriptionfound in Yerevan established that the modern capital of Armenia was founded in thesummer of 782 BC by King Argishti I. Yerevan is the world's oldest city to havedocumented the exact date of its foundation.During the late 6th century BC, the first geographicalentity that was called Armenia by neighbouringpopulations was established under the Orontid Dynastywithin the Achaemenid Empire, as part of the latters'territories. The kingdom became fully sovereign fromthe sphere of influence of the Seleucid Empire in 190 BCunder King Artaxias I and begun the rule of the Artaxiaddynasty. Armenia reached its height between 95 and 66 BC under Tigranes the Great, becoming the mostpowerful kingdom of its time east of the Roman Republic.In the next centuries, Armenia was in the Persian Empire's sphere of influence during the reign ofTiridates I, the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, which itself was a branch of the ParthianEmpire. Throughout its history, the kingdom of Armenia enjoyed both periods of independence andperiods of autonomy subject to contemporary empires. Its strategic location between two continents hassubjected it to invasions by many peoples, including Assyria (under Ashurbanipal, at around 669–627BC, the boundaries of Assyria reached as far as Armenia and the Caucasus Mountains), [49]  Medes,Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Sasanian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabs, SeljukEmpire, Mongols, Ottoman Empire, the successive Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties of Iran, and theRussians.Religion in ancient Armenia was historically related to a set of beliefs that, in Persia, led to the emergence of Zoroastrianism. Itparticularly focused on the worship of Mithra and also included a pantheon of gods such as Aramazd, Vahagn, Anahit, and Astghik.The country used the solar Armenian calendar, which consisted of 12 months. Historical Armenia, 150 BCA reconstruction of Herodotus' worldmap c. 450 BC, with Armenia shownin the centreThe Kingdom of Armeniaat itsgreatest extent under Tigranes theGreat, who reigned between 95 and66 BCArmenian soldierof theAchaemenidarmy, circa 470BC. Xerxes I tombrelief.
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