Arh 2050 Chapter 1

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CHAPTER 1 Primitive vs prehistoric can be misleading, suggests it was crude had longstanding oral tradition, makes untrue implications in many cases it is made in connection w/ some magical or mythical belief, shares a lack of concern for the replication of space surface is used as the ground (ex. Wall of cave is the ground) +Found objects: Images, materials, or objects as found in the everyday environment that are appropriated as works of art. Art historians consider this art to be unmodified b
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  CHAPTER 1   Primitive vs prehistoric can be misleading, suggests it was crude hadlongstanding oral tradition, makes untrue implications in many cases it ismade in connection w/ some magical or mythical belief, shares a lack of concern for the replication of space surface is used as the ground (ex. Wall of cave is the ground)+Found objects: Images, materials, or objects as found in the everydayenvironment that are appropriated as works of art. Art historians considerthis art to be unmodified by human intervention beyond mere selection1.2 Waterworn pebble, South Africa, c. 3,000,000 BCHumankind srcinated in Africa, where we find thefirst evidence of objects/concepts that appear to look like something else. Explorers of a cave atMakapansgat Valley discovered bones along with awaterworn reddish brown jasperite pebble thatresembled a human face because of the naturaloccurring holes on it. Is it art? Most say no because noone made it but the recognition is that is it ³foundart.´ The conjecture is someone found it, thought itwas special, took it to cave, and kept it.³Artwork´ defined by art historians needed to be altered/modified by humanhands+Paleolithic From the Greek   paleo - old and lithos - stone; Old Stone Age,during which humans started making art purposely with no other purposethan decoration beginning in 30,000 BC. Creative production increasesdramatically (human and animal form in many forms, jewelry is made,sculptures, paintings). Animals often depicted in profile (most info). Humanfigures almost always female.+incise: to cut into a surface with a sharp instrument; also, a method of decoration, especially on metal or pottery.1.5 Venus of Willendorf, Austria, Paleolithic, c. 28,000 - 25,000 BCA 4¶¶ limestone figurine of a nude woman, discovered in1908. Name of ³Venus´ is misleading because it impliesreligious or magical. The anatomical exaggeration of   round, swollen, and voluptuous femaleness suggests fertility, perhaps arepresentation of health. Faceless expression indicates anonymity, apersonification of life itself. Pubic triangle is shown. Feet are tapered at thebottom. Handheld size implies individuality, used as a private charm. Itmimics a sleeping/dead position. It was found with traces of red pigment.+relief: In sculpture, figures projecting from a background of which they arepart. The degree of relief is designate high, low (bas), and sunken (hollow).1.6 Woman holding a bison horn, France, Paleolithic,c. 25,000 - 20,000 BC18¶¶ tall, oldest known work of relief sculpture thatprojects from a background that it is still a part of.Originally carved into a large rock at the entrance of a rock sculpture tells us that the people could becoming back, or a symbol of some sort public work of art and could be a symbol meaningful to more thanone person could mark the function of the spaceitself. The painted limestone different from VoW,active, animated, stationary, same large, exaggeratedfemale features, does not have a face, has traces of red pigment, shared a theme reclining woman relief sculpture, selected thenatural curving form of the rock itself to accentuate his image that implies aportrait or a model.1.7 Two bison, France, Paleolithic,c. 15,000 - 10,000 BCA pair of 2¶ long bison modeled inclay against a large, irregular freestanding rock. A natural geologicalfeature, largest Paleolithicsculpture in stone, formed throughspecific tools, with volume anddepth, ground line of cave used,showing a living breathing animal.+ground line: a painted or carve base line on which figures appear to stand inpaintings and reliefs.  +ground: a coating applied to a canvas or some other surface to prepare thatsurface for painting; also, background+medium: the substance or agency in which an artist works; also, in painting,the vehicle (usually liquid) that carries the pigment.1.10 Spotted horses andnegative hand imprints,France, Paleolithic, c.22,000 BCSigns consisting of checks,dots, squares, or otherarrangement of lines oftenaccompany the pictures of animals. Painted handsaccompanyrepresentations of spottedhorses. 11¶2¶¶ images overlapped handprints (literally see the artist's hand andthe desire to leave his signature). ³Negative´ handprints means painter blewpigment around his hand. ³Positive´ handprint means painter placed hand inpigment first. It¶s unsure of function or meaning desire to tell the viewer thatit was made shows a sense of power ( I made it ). Paint is made out of mineral pigments, specific place chosen because rock formation looks likehorse. It shows a sense of reality vs. illusion.+mural: a wall painting; a fresco is a type of mural medium and technique1.11 Hall of the Bulls, Lascaux, France, Paleolithic, c. 15,000 - 13,000 BC   A complex of caves were discovered in 1940 by 4 teens who fell into the cave.Shown is a large stone gallery of bulls and other animals with no natural light,indicating that it needed to be lit to execute work. Many bulls and bison bullsare represented by 2 methods: silhouette and outline. The range in sizeappears that the images were depicted in different times. The artist usestwisted perspective descriptive approach. It has subjective function orpurpose (could be magical or the artist trying to convey the world aroundhim), and described as floating (no representation of space).+composite view: a convention of representation in which part of a figure isshown in profile and another part is shown frontally; it is a descriptive, asopposed to a strictly optical, method of representation.1.13 Rhinoceros, woundedman, and disemboweledbison, Lascaux, France,Paleolithic, c. 15,000 BC+narrative composition:elements in a work of artarranged in such a manneras to tell a storyPaintings constitute the first depiction of man in prehistoric art, which seemsto have a narrative concept and/or progression of time. Is it documentary ordidactic? The story is enigmatic because we are unsure of the ambiguouspositions of figures. Maleness is exaggerated. Bison is successfully shown withemotion, full of bristling anger as its innards are disemboweled by a spear thebeak (masked?) man with the erect penis may have thrown. The duck stick israndomly place, unsure of significance, may suggest power.+Neolithic from the Greek  n eo - new and lithos - stone; New Stone Age c. 9000 - 2000 BC marks the domestication of animals, development of agriculture andlivestock as a food source, larger art, fixed homes or permanent dwellingsused in clustered villages, simplified accounting. Mesopotamia  FertileCrescent. The oldest known villages were found bordering Tigress andEuphrades rivers. Grain, animals, and rain were plentiful. In earlysettlements, weaving, metal work, and pottery srcinated.
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