AP World History Key Terms

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AP World Vocab
  AP World History Key Terms1 1. prehistory vs. history Prehistory  –  no written documents; History: written proof of history2 2. features of civilization Social etiquette, religion, education, literature3 3. stages of hominid development Austrolopithecus, homo habilis, homo erectus, homo sapiens4 4. ―Out of Africa‖ thesis vs. multiregional thesisHumans srcinated from Africa and proliferated vs.srcinated from Africa but multiple geographical locationsfirst 100 million years5 5. Paleolithic Era Old Stone Age6 6. Neolithic Era New Stone Age7 7. family units, clans, tribes A group of people sharing common ancestry8 8. foraging societies Nomadic, small communities and population, no politicalsystem, economic distribution is more equal9 9. nomadic hunters/gatherers Move place to place according to environment; adapts toenvironment10 10. Ice Age Period of time where Earth was covered partly in ice11 11. civilization Changes when agriculture started12 12. Neolithic Revolution Farming uses; start of agriculture13 13. Domestication of plants and animals Farming system where animals are taken to differentlocations in order to find fresh pastures14 14. nomadic pastoralism Slash-and-burn; once land is depleted, moved on to let soilrecover 15 15. migratory farmers Farmers that migrate instead of settling after using up theland.16 16. partrilineal/patrilocal Live with husband’s family. Traced through father’s lineage  17 17. irrigation systems replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water fromanother source in order to grow crops18 18. metalworking craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. It requires skill and the use of many differenttypes of tools19 19. ethnocentrism to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one'sown culture20 20. foraging Looking for food21 21. sedentary agriculture Domestication of plants and animals22 22. shifting cultivation process by which people take an area of land to use for agriculture, only to abandon it a short time later 23 23. slash-and-burn agriculture Trees cut down, plots made for agriculture24 24. matrilineal System in which one belongs to mother’s lineage  25 25. cultural diffusion spread of ideas and material culture, especially if these occur independently of population movement26 26. independent invention Creative innovations of new solutions to old and new problems27 27. specialization of labor specialisation of co-operative labour in specific,circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiencyof output.28 28. gender division of labor Labor divided between man and woman, hunting andgathering etc.29 29. metallurgy and metalworking the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements andtheir mixtures, which are called alloys. craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures30 30. Fertile Crescent a region in the Middle East incorporating present-day Israel,West Bank, and Lebanon and parts of Jordan, Syria, Iraq and  south-eastern Turkey.31 31. Gilgamesh Gilgamesh became a legendary protagonist in the Epic of Gilgamesh.32 32. Hammurabi’s Law Code First set of defined laws within a civilization.33 33. Egypt the civilization of the Lower Nile Valley, between the FirstCataract and the mouths of the Nile Delta, from circa 3300BC until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC. Asa civilization based on irrigation, it is the quintessentialexample of a hydraulic empire.34 34. Egyptian Book of the Dead common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary texts.Constituted a collection of spells, charms, passwords,numbers and magical formulas for use by the deceased in theafterlife, describing many of the basic tenets of Egyptianmythology. They were intended to guide the dead throughthe various trials that they would encounter before reachingthe underworld. Knowledge of the appropriate spells wasconsidered essential to achieving happiness after death.35 35. pyramids tombs for egyptian kings.36 36. hieroglyphics system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using acombination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabeticelements.37 37. Indus valley civilization an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and theGhaggar-Hakra river in what is now Pakistan and westernIndia. The Indus Valley Civilization is also sometimesreferred to as the Harappan Civilization of the IndusValley , in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa38 38. early China Xia, Shang, Zhou, Warring States Period, Qin, Han39 39. the Celts group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from theBritish Isles to Gallatia. Went to war with Romans.40 40. the Hittites and iron weapons First to work iron, first to enter Iron Age. controlled centralAnatolia, north-western Syria down to Ugarit, andMesopotamia down to Babylon, lasted from roughly 1680BC to about 1180 BC. After 1180 BC, the Hittite politydisintegrated into several independent city-states, some of which survived as late as around 700 BC.41 41. the Assyrians and cavalry warfare indigenous people of Mesopotamia and have a historyspanning over 6700 years. Started cavalry warfare?42 42. The Persian Empire used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruledthe country of Persia (Iran). the Achaemenid Empire thatemerged under Cyrus the Great that is usually the earliest to be called Persian. Successive states in Iran before 1935 arecollectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians43 43. The Hebrews and monotheism descendants of biblical Patriarch Eber; were people wholived in the Levant, which was politically Canaan when theyfirst arrived in the area. First monotheistic group; Yahweh.44 44. the Phoenicians and the alphabet enterprising maritime trading culture that spread right acrossthe Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. First formof language.45 45. the Lydians and coinage ancient kingdom of Asia Minor, first to mint coins.46 46. Greek city-states region controlled exclusively by Greek, and usually havingsovereignty. Ex. Crete47 47. democracy form of government in which policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process,usually elections or referendums, open to all or most citizens.  48 48. Persian Wars a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the PersianEmpire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC.49 49. Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or TheDelian League) and the Peloponnesian League whichincluded Sparta and Corinth.50 50. Alexander the Great United Ancient Greece; Hellenistic Age, conquered a largeempire.51 51. Hellenism shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culturedominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, andfrom the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. In this period the traditional Greek culture waschanged by strong Eastern influences, especially Persian, inaspects of religion and government. Cultural centers shiftedaway from mainland Greece, to Pergamon, Rhodes, Antiochand Alexandria.52 52. Homer legendary early Greek poet and rhapsode traditionallycredited with authorship of the major Greek epics  Iliad  and Odyssey  53 53. Socrates and Plato Greek philosopher/student.54 54. Aristotle Along with Plato, he is often considered to be one of the twomost influential philosophers in Western thought. He wrotemany books about physics, poetry, zoology, logic,government, and biology.55 55. Western scientific thought Systematic apporach of observation, hypothesis formation,hypothesis testing and hypothesis evaluation that forms the basis for modern science.56 56. Roman Republic republican government of the city of Rome and its territoriesfrom 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire,which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar'sappointment as perpetual dictator or, more commonly, 27BC the year that the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title Augustus .57 57. plebians vs. patricians peasants/slaves vs. elite/upperclass58 58. Punic Wars series of three wars fought between Rome and thePhoenician city of Carthage. Reason: clash of interests between the expanding Carthaginian and Roman spheres of influence.59 59. Julius Caesar Roman military and political leader. He was instrumental inthe transformation of the Roman Republic into the RomanEmpire. Dictator for life.60 60. Roman Empire Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following itsreorganization under the leadership of Octavian.61 61. Qin, Han, Tang Dynasties First three dynasties of China that we have recordings of.First of 'centralized' China.62 62. Shi Huangdi king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC,and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to210 BC, ruling under the name First Emperor.  63 63. Chinese tributary system form of conducting diplomatic and political relations withChina before the fall of the Qin Dynasty.64 64. the Silk Road interconnected series of routes through Southern Asiatraversed by caravan and ocean vessel.65 65. Nara and Heian Japan ast division of classical Japanese history, running from 794to 1185. The Heian period is considered the peak of theJapanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially   poetry and literature. Nara: agricultural in nature, centeredaround villages. Most of the villagers followed the Shintoreligion, based around the worship of natural and ancestralspirits.66 66. the Fujiwara clan dominated the Japanese politics of Heian period.67 67. Lady Murasaki and ―The Tale of  GenjiWritten by Murasaki. First novel of japanese/worldliterature.68 68. Central Asia and Mongolia historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and theSilk Road. As a result, it has acted as a crossroads for themovement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, theMiddle East, South Asia, and East Asia69 69. the Aryan invasion of India Aryans invaded and destroyed Indus River civilization,settled, moved to Ganges River.70 70. Dravidians people of southern and central India and northern Sri Lankawho speak Dravidian languages, the best known of which areTamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.71 71. Indian caste system system was a basically simple division of society into four castes (Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra) arranged ina hierarchy, with the Untouchable (Dalit) outcasts belowthis structure. But socially the caste system was morecomplicated, with many more castes and sub-castes andother divisions.72 72. Ashoka of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. A convert toBuddhism.73 73. Constantinople/Byzantine Empire Made into second capital by Constantine in attempts to helpRome turn its economy around.74 74. Justinian r. 527 - 565 CE   –  Justinian is the Eastern Roman emperor who tried to restore the unity of the old Roman Empire. Heissued the most famous compilation of Roman Law. He wasunable to maintain a hold in Italy and lost the provinces of north Africa. It was the last effort to restore theMediterranean unity.75 75. early Medieval Europe ―Dark Ages‖ a period in history between the last emperor of Rome, 475A.D., and the Renaissance, about 1450 (15 th century). Art production during this period was dominated by the CatholicChurch.   76 76. feudalism The social organization created by exchanging grants of lands r fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty andEuropean Middle Ages; greater lords provided protectionand aid to lesser lords in return for military service.77 77. Charlemagne Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who establishedsubstantial empire in France and Germany (800 C.E). Hehelped restore some church-based education in westernEurope, and the level of intellectual activity began a slowrecovering. After death, the empire could not survive.78 78. Mohammed and the foundation of IslamIn 610/earlier, he received the first of many revelations:Allah transmitted to him through the angel Gabriel. Believed in the five pillars: (1) ―There is no God but Allah, andMuhammad is his Prophet.‖ (2) Pray fac ing the Mecca fivetimes a day. (3) Fast during the month of Ramadan whichenhances community solidarity and allowed the faithful todemonstrate their fervor. (4) The zakat, tithe for charity,strengthened community cohesion. (5) The haji, pilgrimage
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