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Angkor Wat temple assignment
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  Angkor Wat Angkor Wat  (Khmer : អង្រវត ) is the largest [1]  Hindu temple complex in the world, situated at Angkor , Camodia, uilt ! King ur!a#arman $$ in the earl! 1%th centur! as his state temple and capital cit!& As the est'preser#ed temple at the site, it is the onl! one to ha#e remained a signiicant religious centre since its oundation  irst Hindu, dedicated to the god *ishnu, then +uddhist& he temple is at the top o the high classical st!le o  Khmer  architecture& $t has  ecome a s!mol o Camodia, appearing on its national lag, and it is the countr!-s prime attraction or #isitors&Angkor .at comines two asic plans o Khmer temple architecture: the temple mountain and the later galleried temple, ased on earl! outh $ndian Hindu architecture, with ke! eatures such as the /agati& $t is designed to represent 0ount 0eru, home o the de#as in Hindu m!tholog!: within a moat and an outer wall &2 kilometres (%&% mi) long are three rectangular galleries, each raised ao#e the next& At the centre o the temple stands a 3uincunx o towers& 4nlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor .at is oriented to the west5 scholars are di#ided as to the signiicance o this& he temple is admired or the grandeur and harmon! o the architecture, its extensi#e  as'relies, and or the numerous de#atas adorning its walls& he modern name, Angkor .at, means 6Cit! emple65  Angkor   is a #ernacular orm o the word nokor   ( នគរ ), which comes rom the anskrit word nagar   (  नगर  )& Wat   is the Khmer  orm o the 7ali word 6#atthu6, meaning 6temple grounds6& 7rior to this time the temple was known as  Preah  Pisnulok   (*ara *ishnuloka in anskrit), ater the posthumous title o its ounder& [%] ã History King ur!a#arman $$, the uilder o Angkor .atAngkor .at lies 8&8 kilometres (&9 mi) north o the modern town o iem eap, and a short distance south and slightl! east o the pre#ious capital, which was centred at +aphuon& $t is in an area o Camodia where there is an important group o ancient structures& $t is the southernmost o Angkor-s main sites&he initial design and construction o the temple took place in the irst hal o the 1%th centur!, during the reign o ur!a#arman $$ (ruled 111  c& 118;)& <edicated to *ishnu, it was uilt as the king-s state temple and capital cit!& As neither the oundation stela nor an! contemporar! inscriptions reerring to the temple ha#e een ound, its srcinal name is unknown, ut it ma! ha#e een known as Vrah Vishnu-lok   ( literall! 6Hol! Vishnu'-Location' , Old Khmer' Cl. Sanskrit  )& ater the presiding deit!& .ork seems to ha#e ended shortl! ater the king-s death, lea#ing some o the  as'relie  decoration uninished& []  $n 11==, approximatel! %= !ears ater the death o ur!a#arman $$, Angkor was sacked ! the Chams, the traditional enemies o the  Khmer& hereater the empire was restored ! a new king, /a!a#arman *$$, who estalished a new capital and state temple (Angkor hom and the +a!on respecti#el!) a ew kilometres to the north&$n the late 1th centur!, Angkor .at graduall! mo#ed rom Hindu to hera#ada +uddhist use, which continues to the present da!& Angkor .at is unusual among the Angkor temples in that although it was somewhat neglected ater the 12th centur! it was ne#er completel! aandoned, its preser#ation eing due in part to the act that its moat also pro#ided some protection rom encroachment ! the >ungle& [9] ?ne o the irst .estern #isitors to the temple was Ant@nio da 0adalena, a 7ortuguese monk who #isited in 182 and said that it 6is o such extraordinar! construction that it is not possile to descrie it with a pen, particularl! since it is like no other uilding in the world& $t has towers and decoration and all the reinements which the human genius can concei#e o&6 [8]  Howe#er, the temple was popularised in the .est onl! in the mid'1Bth centur! on the pulication o Henri 0ouhot-s tra#el notes& he rench explorer wrote o it:6?ne o these templesDa ri#al to that o   olomon, and erected ! some ancient 0ichelangelo D  might take an honourale place eside our most eautiul uildings& $t is grander than an!thing let to us ! Ereece or ome, and presents a sad contrast to the state o ararism in which the nation is now plunged&6 [2] 0ouhot, like other earl! .estern #isitors, ound it diicult to elie#e that the Khmers could ha#e uilt the temple, and mistakenl! dated it to around the same era as ome& he true histor! o Angkor .at was pieced together onl! rom st!listic and epigraphic e#idence accumulated during the suse3uent clearing and restoration work carried out across the whole Angkor site&here were no ordinar! dwellings or houses or other signs o settlement including cooking utensils, weapons, or items o clothing usuall! ound at ancient sites& $nstead there is the e#idence o the monuments themsel#es& [=] rench postcard aout Angkor .at in 1B11Angkor .at re3uired considerale restoration in the %;th centur!, mainl! the remo#al o accumulated earth and #egetation& []  .ork was interrupted ! the ci#il war and Khmer ouge control o the countr! during the 1B=;s and 1B;s, ut relati#el! little damage was done during this period other than the thet and destruction o mostl! post'Angkorian statues& [B] he temple is a powerul s!mol o Camodia, and is a source o great national pride that has actored into Camodia-s diplomatic relations with its neighour hailand, rance and the 4nited tates& A depiction o Angkor .at has een a part o Camodian national lags since the introduction o the irst #ersion circa 12& [1;]  rom a larger historical and e#en transcultural   perspecti#e, howe#er, the temple o Angkor .at did not ecame a s!mol o national pride sui generis ut had een inscried into a larger politico'cultural process o rench'colonial heritage  production in which the srcinal temple site was presented in rench colonial and uni#ersal exhiitions in 7aris and 0arseille etween 1B and 1B=& [11] he splendid artistic legac! o Angkor .at and other Khmer monuments in the Angkor  region led directl! to rance adopting Camodia as a  protectorate on 11 August 12 and in#ading iam to take control o the ruins& his 3uickl! led to Camodia reclaiming lands in the northwestern corner o the countr! that had een under iamese (hai) control since 181 A< (0anich /umsai %;;1), or ! some accounts, 191 A<& [1%]  Camodia gained independence rom rance on B Fo#emer 1B8 and has controlled Angkor .at since that time&<uring the midst o the *ietnam .ar , Chie o tate  Forodom ihanouk  hosted /ac3ueline Kenned! in Camodia to ulill her 6lielong dream o seeing Angkor .at&6 [1] $n /anuar! %;; riots erupted in 7hnom 7enh when a alse rumour circulated that a hai soap opera actress had claimed that Angkor .at elonged to hailand& [19] Architecture Angkor .at, located at 1G%9 ′ 98 ″  F 1;G8% ′ ; ″   , is a uni3ue comination o the temple mountain, the standard design or the empire-s state temples, the later plan o concentric galleries, and inluences rom ?rissa and the Chola o amil Fadu, $ndia& he temple is a representation o 0ount 0eru, the home o the gods: the central 3uincunx o towers s!molises the i#e peaks o the mountain, and the walls and moat the surrounding mountain ranges and ocean& [18]  Access to the upper areas o the temple was progressi#el! more exclusi#e, with the lait! eing admitted onl! to the lowest le#el& [12] 4nlike most Khmer temples, Angkor .at is oriented to the west rather than the east& his has led man! (including ElaiIe and Eeorge CoedJs) to conclude that ur!a#arman intended it to ser#e as his unerar! temple& [1=]  urther e#idence or this #iew is pro#ided ! the  as'relies, which  proceed in a counter'clockwise directionD   rasa!a  in Hindu terminolog!Das this is the re#erse o the normal order& ituals take place in re#erse order during +rahminic uneral ser#ices& []  he archaeologist Charles Higham also descries a container which ma! ha#e een a unerar! >ar which was reco#ered rom the central tower& [1]  $t has een nominated ! some as the greatest expenditure o energ! on the disposal o a corpse& [1B]  reeman and /ac3ues, howe#er, note that se#eral other temples o Angkor depart rom the t!pical eastern orientation, and suggest that Angkor .at-s alignment was due to its dedication to *ishnu, who was associated with the west& [18] A urther interpretation o Angkor .at has een proposed ! leanor 0annikka& <rawing on the temple-s alignment and dimensions, and on the content and arrangement o the as'relies, she  argues that the structure represents a claimed new era o peace under King ur!a#arman $$: 6as the measurements o solar and lunar time c!cles were uilt into the sacred space o Angkor .at, this di#ine mandate to rule was anchored to consecrated chamers and corridors meant to  perpetuate the king-s power and to honor and placate the deities maniest in the hea#ens ao#e&6 [%;][%1]  0annikka-s suggestions ha#e een recei#ed with a mixture o interest and scepticism in academic circles& [1]   he distances hersel rom the speculations o others, such as Eraham Hancock , that Angkor .at is part o a representation o the constellation <raco& [%%] Style 4pper galler! at Angkor .atAngkor .at is the prime example o the classical st!le o Khmer architecture Dthe Angkor .at st!le Dto which it has gi#en its name& +! the 1%th centur! Khmer architects had ecome skilled and conident in the use o sandstone (rather than rick or laterite) as the main uilding material& 0ost o the #isile areas are o sandstone locks, while laterite was used or the outer wall and or hidden structural parts& he inding agent used to >oin the locks is !et to e identiied, although natural resins or slaked lime ha#e een suggested& [%] Angkor .at has drawn praise ao#e all or the harmon! o its design, which has een compared to the architecture o  ancient Ereece and ome& According to 0aurice ElaiIe, a mid'%;th' centur! conser#ator o Angkor, the temple 6attains a classic perection ! the restrained monumentalit! o its inel! alanced elements and the precise arrangement o its proportions& $t is a work o power, unit! and st!le&6 [%9] Architecturall!, the elements characteristic o the st!le include: the ogi#al, redented towers shaped like lotus uds5 hal'galleries to roaden passagewa!s5 axial galleries connecting enclosures5 and the cruciorm terraces which appear along the main axis o the temple& !pical decorati#e elements are de#atas (or apsaras),  as'relies, and on  pediments extensi#e garlands and narrati#e scenes& he statuar! o Angkor .at is considered conser#ati#e, eing more static and less graceul than earlier work & [%8]  ?ther elements o the design ha#e een destro!ed ! looting and the passage o time, including gilded stucco on the towers, gilding on some igures on the as'relies, and wooden ceiling panels and doors& [%2] he Angkor .at st!le was ollowed ! that o the +a!on  period, in which 3ualit! was oten sacriiced to 3uantit!& [%=]  ?ther temples in the st!le are +antea! amr, hommanon, Chao a!
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