ANALYSIS OF WATER OF RAIGARH AREA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HEAVY METALS

3 pages
33 views

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 3
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
The quality of any body of surface or ground water is a function of either both natural influences and human influences. Without human influences water quality would be determined by the weathering of bedrock minerals, by the atmospheric processes of evaporation, transpiration and the deposition of dust and salt by wind, by the natural leaching of organic matter and nutrients from soil, by hydrological factors that lead to runoff, and by biological processes within the aquatic environment that can alter the physical and chemical composition of water. Declining water quality has become a global issue of concern as human populations griesrow, industrial and agricultural activities expand, and climate change threatens to cause major alterations to the hydrological cycle.
Transcript
  • 1. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163, www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 3 (May-June 2015), PP. 217-219 217 | P a g e ANALYSIS OF WATER OF RAIGARH AREA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HEAVY METALS Pandey Rachana1, Singh Dhanesh2, Kumar Saroj2 and Sujata Kumar3 1 Department of chemistry, Dr. C.V. Raman University bilaspur (C.G.) 2 Department of chemistry, K.G. Arts & Science College Raigarh (C.G.) 3 Kirodimal Institute of Technology, Raigarh (C. G.) skumarrgh@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT- The quality of any body of surface or ground water is a function of either both natural influences and human influences. Without human influences water quality would be determined by the weathering of bedrock minerals, by the atmospheric processes of evaporation, transpiration and the deposition of dust and salt by wind, by the natural leaching of organic matter and nutrients from soil, by hydrological factors that lead to runoff, and by biological processes within the aquatic environment that can alter the physical and chemical composition of water. Declining water quality has become a global issue of concern as human populations griesrow, industrial and agricultural activities expand, and climate change threatens to cause major alterations to the hydrological cycle. KEYWORDS: Hardness, water analysis, T.D.S, Kondatarai, Heavy metals. I. INTRODUCTION Raigarh is thickly populated city, many small & big industries here. Such big industries like JSPL, Nalwa, monet etc. industrial influence, treated and untreated discharge in dam & canal. Our indispensable water resources have proven themselves to be greatly resilient, but they are increasingly vulnerable and threatened. Our growing population's need for water for food, raw materials and energy is increasingly competing with nature's own demands for water to sustain already imperilled ecosystems and the services on which we depend. Day after day, we pour millions of tons of untreated sewage and industrial and agricultural wastes into the world's water systems. Clean water has become scarce and will become even scarcer with the onset of climate change. Although the surface of our planet is nearly 71% water, only 3% of it is fresh. Of these 3% about 75% is tied up in glaciers and polar icebergs, 24% in groundwater and 1% is available in the form of fresh water in rivers, lakes and ponds suitable for human consumption (Dugan, 1972). Due to increasing industrialization on one hand and exploding population on the other, the demands of water supply have been increasing tremendously. Moreover considerable part of this limited quality of water is polluted by sewage, industrial waste and a wide range of synthetic chemicals. Fresh water which is a precious and limited vital resource needs to be protected, conserved and used wisely by man. Unfortunately such has not been the case, as the polluted lakes, rivers and streams throughout the world testify. According to the scientists of National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, India, about 70 % of the available water in India is polluted (Pani, 1986) II. THE STUDY AREA The present study is centralized to Raigarh and its surrounding coalmining located on Coordinates: 22º07’40” N : 83º31’16” E. Six locations covering residential area , industrial area and municipal waste dumpisites, sample were collected from river, Pond, nallah in each location. It aims to weigh up the suitability of water for various human activities and for the protection of aquatic life Water quality index calculates all the parameters and gives an easy decision making output to analyze the quality of water. Change in water temperature, pH, T.D.S., conductivity, total hardness, Ca hardness, Mg hardness, chloride, turbidity, Alkalinity, COD, DO & some heavy metal’s were used for the calculation of the index. From the listed data the quality of water was concluded. III. MATERIALS AND METHOD White plastic bottle of one liter capacity were used for collecting the samples. Analysis of the water sample has done by according to the standard analytical procedure. A. Parameters measured in field For monitoring purpose, six Area were selected in Raigarh district Chhattisgarh viz, Taraimal, lara, chiraipani, kondatarai, kunjedabri & around tamnar area. In each area monitored at least five locations covering residential areas, Industrial areas and municipal waste dumpsites, samples were collected from tube wells, hand pumps and open wells in each locations. At each sampling station analysed the samples for temperature, pH, and conductivity. The same samples were taken to the Water testing laboratory P.H.E. department raigarh (C.G.) for analyzing the physico-chemical parameters i.e. , TDS, Hardness, Chloride, Turbidity, alkalinity, COD, DO and Heavy metals. The ranges of values for major parameters are as given at the results and discussion. During the visit the following common points were observed. Hardness COD, DO, Cholorides Hardness Ca, Mg as were analysed by titrimetric method and the others are by following:
  • 2. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163, www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 3 (May-June 2015), PP. 217-219 218 | P a g e IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. General parameters 6 water samples taken from Raigarh city were collected during march 2015 from various surface water sources. Collected two samples each in residential, industrial area and near municipal solid waste dumpsites in each city. The details of sampling locations, type of sources and its depth are given at Table 1 to 5. pH, temperature, conductivity and alkalinity was analyzed in the field itself and preserved the samples for general parameters and heavy metals analysis as per the norms. The samples were analyzed in water testing laboratory P.H.E. Department Raigarh (C.G.) The physico-chemical analysis data and heavy metal analysis data has been given in the table B. Selection of Water Monitoring Stations The water quality monitoring stations were selected with a view to represent the surface water bodies in around coalmining area Tamnar raigarh area. There are number of seasonal nallas, Ponds and some perennial streams in the area. Total of 6 surface water sampling stations were monitored. C. Locations Direction Table 1.1 is a descriptive listing of the water sampling stations SAMPLE NO. SURFACE WATER SAMPLING STATIONS SW-1 Kelo River Main city SW-2 Pond at village Kondatarai SW-3 Pond at village kunjedabri SW-4 Pond at village taraimal near Nalwa plant SW-5 Chiraipani Nallah near Tamnar area SW-6 lakha pond SN ARAMETERS APPARATUS MODEL NO. 1 pH Digital pH meter EuTech instruments S/N781686 Pin-54X002606C 2 Conductivity Conductivity meter305 EuTech instruments Con 510 3. Turbidity turbidity meter EuTech instruments TN-100 4. T.D.S. ECTN100IR 01X35730/ serial no. 869188 5. Heavy metals(Fe,Cu,Cd) Spectrophotometer/ cholorimeter HACH DR- 2800 SN parameters Units IS : 10500 SW-1 SW-2 SW-3 SW-4 SW-5 SW-6 Desirable Permissible 1 Temperature 0 C - - 30 30 30 27 27 27 2 Colour Hazen 5 25 CL CL CL CL CL CL 3. Turbidity N.T.U. 5 10 5.52 4.4 26.7 61.8 24.3 56.6 4 Alkalinity Mg/l 200 600 46.0 61.0 53.2 57.1 63.1 54.2 5 pH pH scale 6.5 – 8.5 NR 8.31 8.29 8.06 6.92 7.29 7.63 6 conductivity Micro mohs/cm - -- 187 1006 243 240 127 490 7 Chlorides g/l 250 1000 200 1300 200 400 200 500 8 Total hardness Mg/l 200 600 100 220 80 80 80 180 9 Hardness Calcium( as Ca) Mg/l 75 200 44 76 24 40 40 44 10 Hardness Magnesium (as Mg) Mg/l Mg/l 30 100 56 144 56 40 40 136 11 T.D.S. Mg/l 500 1500 93 502 121 120 63.6 243 12. C.O.D. Mg/l -- -- 56.0 27.0 29.6 35.2 23.8 26.5 13 D.O. Mg/l 1.5(4 to 6ppm) ---- 4.9 4.4 4.1 5.1 4.2 3.9 14 15 16 Iron Mg/l 0.1 1.0 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.06 Copper Mg/l 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03 chromium Mg/l 0.05 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03
  • 3. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163, www.ijtra.com Volume 3, Issue 3 (May-June 2015), PP. 217-219 219 | P a g e V. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am thankful to Dr.Manish upadhyay , H.O.D. of chemistry department (Dr. C.V. Raman University Kargi Road kota Bilaspur (C.G.) & all the Staff of Water Testing Lab. P.H.E. Department Raigarh (C.G.) For their Valuable support and suggestions. REFERENCES [1] Kataria,HC., A biochemical analysis ofdrinking water of Raisen district (M.P). Asian. [2] J. Chem. Revs. (1994). 5(1-2): 66-68 [3] Manisha Sonel,et al ,Physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of ground water layers in Bhanpur, Bhopal(M.P).,Current World Environment, (2010) 5(2): 379- 382 [4] APHA– Standards methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. (1998) [5] Brown WLJr, Eisner Ô and Whittaker R ? (1970) Alimonies and kairomones: Transpacific chemical messengers; Bio Science 20 21–22 [6] Giriyappanavar, B.S. and Patil, R.R– Monitoring water quality of two lake of Belgaum district [7] (Karnataka) with special reference to phytoplankton’s. . (2013) [8] Hosmani, SP. and Bharti, S.GLimnological studies on pond, lakes of Dharwad- comparative phytoplankton ecology of four water bodies phytos. . (1980) 19(1), 27-43. [9] Abbasi, SA,. Water Quality Indices, state of the Art Report. Scientific Contribution Published by INCOH, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, (2002) 73p.
  • Related Search
    Similar documents
    View more...
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks