Analysis and Explanation

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  A.   ANALYSIS AND EXPLANATION 1.   The Influence of Concentration on Reaction Rate In the first experiment is to testing the influence of concentration on Reaction Rate. The first we prepare four beaker glass and then pouring each of the beaker glass which have marked A, B, C, D with 15 ml of Sodium thiosulfate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ). The A beaker glass added with Na 2 S 2 O 3  1 M, B beaker glass added with Na 2 S 2 O 3 0,5 M, C beaker glass added with Na 2 S 2 O 3 0,1 M, D beaker glass added with Na 2 S 2 O 3  0,05 M. Every beaker glass added with 5 ml HCl 0,5 M and than shake it until homogenous. Start the stopwatch and stop when it look turbid. The reaction is:  Na 2 S 2 O 3  (aq)   + 2HCl (aq)→ 2NaCl (aq) + S (s)   + SO 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l)  Na 2 S 2 O 3 and HCl are colourless solution. When Na 2 S 2 O 3  added with HCl become colourless solution. The solution on A glass with concentration 1 M need 3,50 second to changes from colourless solution become turbid solution. The solution on B glass with concentration 0.5 M need 4,50 second to changes from colourless solution become turbid solution. The solution on C glass with concentration 0,1 M need 88,99 second to changes from colourless solution become turbid solution. The solution on D glass with concentration 0,05 M need 153,88 second to changes from colourless solution become turbid solution. Table 1. Concentration In Reaction Rate NO [Na 2 S 2 O 3 ] M [HCl] M t (sekon) r = 1/t M/sekon 1 1 0,5 3,50 0,2857143 2 0,5 0,5 4,36 0,2293578 3 0,1 0,5 88,99 0,0112372 4 0,05 0,5 153,88 0,0064986   Graphic 1. The Influence Of Concentration In Reaction Rate The influence of the concentration, the greater the concentration (molarity higher value) then the number of particles in substances and the  possibility of collisions increases. The greater the possibility of collisions will  be easier for the reaction to take place (faster). KURANG REACTION LAW. 2.   The Influence of Surface Area on Reaction Rate The second experiment is testing the influence of surface area in reaction rate. In the firstly take some grain marble, and then weighed using a  balance. In another crushed the marble become powder marble and weighed until the mass same with mass of grain marble. After that adding grain marble to first ballon and powder marble into second ballon, and set the ballon to the flask which is added by 10 ml of HCl 1M. Starting the stopwatch when the marble on the ballon fall into HCl solution and stopping the stopwatch when the ballon filled by CO 2  gasses, it can be indicate by the ballon is stand upright. Repeating the experiment with marble powder. The reaction is CaCO 3  (s) + 2HCl (aq) →  NaCl 2  (aq) + H 2 O (l) + CO 2  (g) 00.050.10.150.20.250.30.05 0.1 0.5 1    1    /   T   i   m   e    (   s  -   1    ) Concentration (M) Concentration and Reaction Rate  The reaction by using 0,2 gram of marble grain. And the HCl to be colourless solution and CaCO 3  is solid and the colour is white. The reaction  by using 0,2 gram of grain marble needs 1118,85 second to fill the ballon with CO 2 . Meanwhile, the reaction by using 0,2 gram of powders just need 414,8 second to fill the ballon with CO 2 . CaCO 3  ( M ) Time ( s ) Grain 1118,85 Powder 414,8 Table 2. Surface Area In Reaction Rate The surface area has a very important role in the reaction rate, the smaller the particle size, surface area so that means the faster the reaction rate, and vice versa, the larger the particle size, surface area means more narrow touch so that the reaction rate is slower. This can happen because the larger the surface area of the touch area between the particles, the collisions that occur more and more, resulting in the faster the reaction rate. Likewise, if the smaller the surface area of the touchpad, the smaller the inter-particle collisions that occur, so that the reaction rate was getting smaller. Collisions can produce an energy that exceeds the activation energy, so the more collisions that occur the greater the kinetic energy produced, the faster the reaction can take place. 3.   The Influence of Temperature on Reaction Rate The thirtd experiment is testing the influence of temperature on reaction rate. The firstly, making A solution and B solution. In A solution, we have to diluted 10 drops of H 2 C 2 O 4  0,05M with water until the volume  become 10 ml, and to make solution B we diluted 10 drops of KMnO 4  0,01M with water until the temperature become 10 ml. Next, preparing 5 test tube. And than added 5 drops of solution A and added with 5 drops of sulphuric  acid (H 2 SO 4 ) 0,01M in 5 test tube, recording the initial temperature. Adding 1 drops of B solution. Starting the solution is disappear. Repeating the experiment for temperature 35, 40, 45, 50 by heating the tube which filled by 2 drops of solution A, 2 drops of sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) 0,01M using water steam bath that was boiling. The reaction is : 2KMnO 4  (aq) + 5H 2 C 2 O 4  (aq) + 3H 2 SO 4  (aq) →  2MnSO 4  (aq) + K  2 SO 4  (aq) +8H 2 O (l) + 10CO 2  (g) The colour of solution A is colourless solution, and B solution is  purple solution. The colour of H 2 SO 4 is colouless, KMnO 4  is purple solution, and H 2 C 2 O 4 is colourless solution. And the colour of H 2 C 2 O 4 added with H 2 O  become colourless solution. The if H 2 SO 4  become colourless solution, and if added with solution B becomes pink until colourless solution. In the room temperature (29 °   ) need 264,2 second to the purple colour of KMnO 4  become disappearing. At the temperature 50 °    need 4,20 second to the purple colour of KMnO 4  become disappearing. At the temperature 45 °    need 64,53 second to the purple colour of KMnO 4  become disappearing. At the temperature 40 °    need 125,8 second to the purple colour of KMnO 4  become disappearing. And at the temperature 35 °    need 184,1 second to the purple colour of KMnO 4   become disappearing.
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