All You Need to Know About Magic Mushrooms - FAQ Guide

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Hallucinogenic mushrooms have probably been in existence exactly as long as humanity. Ancient pictures of mushroom-headed humanoids have been found in caves in the Sahara. Siberian shamans use[d] fly agarics to enlighten the path to the spiritworld. In Central and Southern America use of psilocybin mushrooms (and other hallucinogens) was common until the arrival of Spaniards who spread the Catholic faith with sword and fire and forbade the use. Spanish priest Bernardino de Sahagun (ca. 1500 AD)
  Hallucinogenic mushrooms have probably been in existence exactly as long as humanity. Ancient pictures of mushroom - headed humanoids have been found in caves in the Sahara. Siberianshamans use[d] fly agarics to enlighten the path to the spiritworld. In Cen tral and Southern America use of psilocybin mushrooms (and other hallucinogens) was common until the arrival ofSpaniards who spread the Catholic faith with sword and fire and forbade the use.Spanish priest Bernardino de Sahagun (ca. 1500 AD) on the use of hallucinogenic mushrooms by the Aztecs: The first thing to be eaten at the feast were small black mushrooms that theycalled nanacatl  and bring on drunkenness, hallucinations and even lechery; theyate these before the dawn...with honey; and when they began to feel the effects, they began to dance, some sang and others wept.... When the drunkenness ofthe mushrooms had passed, they spoke with one another of the visions they had seen. On use of alcohol:If a youth appeared intoxicated in public... he was punished by being beaten to death with stick or garrotte before all other youths assembled serve as an example. Only old people were allowed to drink the alcoholic beverage pulque. Sahagun has an error in hiswritings, the mushrooms were not ingested with food: It is an ancient custom for people to eat mushrooms and these they ate in a trice,as is said. They had had no food exept some cacao drunk the night before. They ate these mushrooms with honey. The Aztecs (1400 - 1521) took other hallucinogenic drugs such as tlapatl,   mixitl  grain and peyotl  or peyote, use of which srcinated from the north of Mexico, where it had been in use since 300 B.C. Mushroom stones in which figures under the cap of a mushroom are depicted have been found even f rom an earlier era (1000 - 500 B.C.) The purpose of these sculptures is not certain, but these stones may have been religious objects.The Codex Vienna Mixtec manuscript (ca. 13th - 15th century) depicts the ritual use of the teonanácatl  by the Mixtec gods. T he god known as 7 Flower (his name presented in the pictorallanguage as seven circles and a flower) was the Mixtec god for hallucinatory plants, especiallythe divine mushroom, and is depicted with a pair of mushrooms in his hand. The Aztec also had their god for the entheogens, Xochipilli , Prince of Flowers. He was the divine patron of the flowery dream as the Aztecs called the ritual hallucinatory trance. Mushrooms inge sted by the indians were supposedly Psilocybe mexicana  or caerulescens  and Panaolus sphinctrinus. Stropharia cubensis, which is currently quite popular as it is easy to locateand cultivate, was not introduced to America until the arrival of the Europeans and their cattle. Today indians regard Stropharia cubensis  inferior to Ps. mexicana  for it grows in dung. In the beginning of twentieth century interest in psychoactive mushrooms stirred. The teonanácatl    was first identified as Lophophora williamsii  or peyote , and it was thought that Sahagun had mistaken the cactus for mushrooms. Finally ethnobotanist Richard Evan Schultes and physicianPlasius Paul Reko traveled for the mushrooms to Oaxaca, and collected spe cimens of Panaeolus   sphinctrinus. They found out that mushroom ceremonies -- veladas    -- were still being held in the area. A decade after World War II, after long search the mycophile fami ly of R. Gordon Wasson came to little Village of Huatla de Jimenez, and Wasson and his friend Allan Richardson attended a velada  held by curandera Maria Sabina . Information about the mushrooms soon spread. Psilocybin and psilocin were found and theiranalogues were synthesized. Experimentation with the mushrooms and the synthesizedsubstances began and magic mushrooms were soon part of the 60's 'psychedelic' m ovement, i.e. every second middle class kid was opening the doors of perception and [ab]using hallucinogenic drugs. .oOo. Etymology .oOo.  _ _ _/ et'e-mol'e-je / 1. the srcin and history of words The name of the genus Psilocybe comes from the Greek words psilos  (bare) and kube  (head), warped into New Latin to form psilocybe . Literally translated, this means bald head , which I suppose comes from their appearance. A rather inaccurate comparison if you ask me, most bald people don't have big pointy nipples on top of cone - shaped heads, even if they're from Remulok, but I digress... The best known hallucinogens in Psilocybe mushrooms are the chemicals psilocybin and psiloci n, which are discussed at length in the next part. There remains a minor controversy about thespelling of their names. Psilocybin and psilocin are both alkaloids (nitrogen - containing substances found in nature), and an effort in the 70's aimed to convert all alkaloid names so that they end in - ine, like cocaine, caffeine, morphine, etc. The names should thus be psilocybine and psilocine ;yet psilocybine is used very rarely even in modern authoritative works, and I have seen psilocine in print exact ly once. If anybody has some idea about the current situation and the Korrekt(tm) spelling, please inform me. .oOo. Chemistry .oOo. The primary active ingredients of Psilocybe  mushrooms are (surprise!) psilocybin and psilocin,and to a lesser extent ba eocystin and norbaeocystin. The ratio of psilocybin to psilocin variesfrom species to species. The primary difference is that psilocin is unstable and it breaks downwhen the mushroom is dried, while psilocybin lasts much longer (a 115 - year old mushrooms ample was found to contain some). The two are equally psychoactive, since one molecule ofpsilocybin breaks down into one molecule of psilocin. But in terms of weight, we find that: molecular weight of psilocybinmolecular weight of psilocin = 284.3204.3 = 1.391So by weight  psilocin is around 1.4 times more potent. The formula for calculating total potency, ignoring [nor]baeocystin, is thus: (psilocybin) + (1.4 * psilocin) = total potency in 'psilocybin units'  Now, here's the structural diagram for psilocybin: Psilocybin C 12 H 17 N 2 O 4 P 4 - OPO 4 - DMT 4 - phosphoryloxy - N,N - dimethyltryptamine 1H -Indol - 4 - ol, 3 - [2 - (dimethylamino)-ethyl]dihydrogen phosphate esterCAS #: 520 - 52 - 5  DEA #: 7437 In the body, the phosphorus part is chopped off ( dephosphorylated ) by the enzyme alkalinephosphatase, turning it into our other friend: Psilocin C 12 H 16 N 2 O   4 - OH- DMT   4 - hydroxy- N,N -dimethyltryptamine  1H -Indol - 4 - ol, 3 - [2 - (dimethylamino)ethyl]  CAS #: 520 - 53 - 6  DEA #: 7438 Psilocybin and psilocin are part of the tryptamine family (indole (C 8 H 7 N) & ethylamine sid e chain). They bear close resemblance to the neurotransmitter serotonin. How these substances work is, Ihave come to believe, still quite obscure. Primary effect seems to be the inhibition of neurotransmitter serotonin (5 - hydroxytryptamine aka 5 -HT), i.e. a 5 - HT2A post - synaptic agonist that mimics the effects to 5 - HT to put it in jargon. This is the working hypothesis for LSD - 25 at the moment and it's probably true for psilocybin as well. These substances also present somecross - tolerance. As a good psychedelic should, psilocybin, psilocin and psilocybian mushrooms have low toxicity - - in tests with mice, doses up to 200 mg of psilocybin/kg of body (in average human terms (65 kg) 13 grams) have been injected i ntravenously without lethal effects. The ED50 : LD50 ratio is 641according to the NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects; compare this with 9637 for vitamin A, 4816 forLSD, 199 for aspirin and 21 for nicotine. Poisoning, at least physically, is thus not a probl em. Then we have the two other significant indole alkaloids:   Baeocystin C 11 H 15 N 2 O 4 P 4 - OPO 4 - MT 4 - Phosphoryloxy - N - methyltryptamine  1H -Indol - 4 - ol, 3 - [2 - (methylamino) - ethyl] dihydrogenphosphate esterCAS #: 21420 - 58 - 6  DEA #: None The monomethyl analogue of psilocybin   Unlike psilocybin, baeocystin is somewhat unstable, and decays noticeably with age. And then we have baeocystin's close chemical cousin:  Norbaeocystin C 10 H 13 N 2 O 4 P 4 - OPO 4 - T   4 - Phosphoryloxytryptamine   1H -Indol - 4 - ol, 3 - [2 - aminoethyl] dihydrogen phosphate esterCAS #: 21420 - 59 - 7  DEA #: None  The demethyl analogue of psilocybin   In other words, baeocystin and norbaeocystin are just psilocybin with one methyl and two methylsrespectively lopped off. And unfortunately for all you synthesis experts, while baeocystin and norbaeocystin do not have DEA control numbers they do both come under the Controlled Substance Analogue Act.When dephosphorylated, they turn into 4 - hydroxy- N - methyltryptamine and 4 - hydroxytryptamine. All 4 substances are presumed hallucinogenic, but less so than psilocin or psilocybin. Very little work seems to have been done on them (Chemical Abstracts averages a cite a year, with most of them of the variety baeocystin found in Psilocybe totallyobscuralis  ). There has been somespeculation on the 'net about them, and a possible correlation between nausea and the amount of baeocystin has been found. We hope to be able to investigate the question further for the next version. These are just the four biggies . A whole truckload of other indoles are known to exist in Psilocyb  e  mushrooms. Here's a sample of what was found in a batch of Psilocybe baeocystis, excluding the ones mentioned above: Indole derivative Amount (microg.) 5 - Benzyloxy - 3 - indole acetic acid 2 N,N - Dimethyltryptamine hydrogen -oxalate [aka DMT] 4Gr amine 403 - Hydroxyethyl indole 25 - Hydroxy- 3 - indole acetic acid 25 - Hydroxyindole 43 - Hydroxymethylindole 25 - Hydroxytryptamine creatine sulfate [aka Serotonin] 45 - Hydroxytryptophane 2
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