Ah 1 Art of the Ancient Near East REVIEW

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1. Art History 1 TEST 2 REVIEW de Beaufort Chapter 2 The Ancient Near East WORKS: White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk, Iraq. Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin , Iraq. The…
  • 1. Art History 1 TEST 2 REVIEW de Beaufort Chapter 2 The Ancient Near East WORKS: White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk, Iraq. Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin , Iraq. The Warka Vase, from Uruk, Iraq. Two worshipers, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna Iraq. Victory stele of Eannatum Girsu, Iraq. Bull-headed lyre, Ur, Iraq. Head of an Akkadian ruler, Nineveh, Iraq. Victory stele of Naram-Sin, from Susa, Iran. Seated statue of Gudea holding temple plan, from Girsu, Iraq. Stele with law code of Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran. Statue of Queen Napir-Asu, from Susa, Iran. Lamassu. Relief from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Kalhu, Iraq Ashurbanipal hunting lions, Nineveh , Iraq. The Gods of Mesopotamia: Henotheism: Many Gods but one above others Over 2,000 deities and demons The Two Triads: Anu: The father of the gods (creator); god of heaven Ea: God of Water Enlil: God of earth, wind, and air Shamash: God of the sun, judge, and law giver; god of wisdom Nanna: God of the moon Ishtar (Innana): Goddess of love, fertility, and war Marduk and Tiamat Babylonian Creation Story Pazuzu The Epic of Gilgamesh The Epic of Gilgamesh
  • 2. Ca. 2,100 BCE Gilgamesh: God-like king of Uruk Part human, part god, blessed with beauty and courage Spurns the love of Ishtar (the Queen of Heaven) and kills the Bull of Heaven. He is punished with the loss of his dearest (male) companion, Enkidu, forced to contemplate mortality. Emotional bonds between men more common in Ancient World Gilgamesh then goes on a quest for everlasting life. When he finds a plant that promises everlasting life, a serpent snatches it away. He is left with a vision of death, a “house of dust,” and a place of inescapable sadness. Biblical Parallels ( Pan Babylonism)  Adam(Enkidu) and Eve (Shamhat)  Great Flood and Noah (Utnapishtim)  Serpent and Eternal Life PERIODS: SUMER AKKAD Defeated by Gutians NEO-SUMERIAN Defeated by Elamites BABYLON Defeated by Hittites/Kassites ASSYRIA NEO-BABYLONIA PERSIA SUMER City-States Creation of a writing system (Cuneiform) Literary Works Gilgamesh Development of the Wheel Developed Arithmetic Cylinder Seals Seals verify legal documents and ownership Incised designs Sumerian Art Registers Horizontal narrative bands Hierarchical Scale Figures: Men – bare chested with kilts Women – left shoulder covered Nudity is a debasement, only slaves and prisoners are nude Emotionless Votive figures Perpetual prayer to cult god Royal Cemetery of Ur-excavated Sir Leonard Woolley Interest in afterlife Ziggurat Massive structures having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding
  • 3. stories or levels. The Mesopotamian ziggurats were not places for public worship or ceremonies as they were believed to be dwelling places for the gods. Only priests were permitted on the ziggurat or in the rooms at its base, and it was their responsibility to care for the gods and attend to their needs. Symbolic Mountains (Axis Mundi) Mud Brick The White Temple and Anu Ziggurat Uruk Population 40,000 Named after the principal god Anu The White Temple was constructed over the Anu Ziggurat Both temples entailed massive manpower inputs—7500 man-years alone Cella Center of the temple (“Waiting Room”) “bent-axis” plan Ziggurat of Ur The “Nanna” Ziggurat Mud-brick building Tapers outward for rain to wash off Four corners oriented to the compass Guardhouse at top of stairs Not built in stages Nanna (Sin) is Moon God Royal Cemetery of Ur Discovered by Sir Leonard Woolley ca. 1922 AKKAD Akkadian, Neo-Sumerian, Babylonian, and Hittite Cultures Sumer is taken over by the Akkadians. The style of rule is different – city-state rulers are not as important – one king for all the city-states. Art deifies the king – who rules with the gods’ approval, not assistance Appropriates Sumerian iconography in their art – why not? Sargon I (head of)-lost wax casting method Naram-Sin (Grandson) The Victory Stele of Naram-Sin Taken to Susa by the Elamites in 1150 BCE as “War Booty” “Stele” Composite View Frontal chest but the rest of the body in profile. (Same as Egyptian) This shows his power and the correct side “right side” of the ruler. Soldiers as well. Symbols of Authority and Kingship – Largest Figure (Hierarchical Scale). Larger even than the Gods (stars). Wears the horned crown typical of several cultures in Mesopotamia. Large Beard.
  • 4. Directional Symbols – Upward diagonal motion of King’s soldiers at left, downward motion of enemy. Nakedness - Symbolic of death. We will see this convention even in Medieval art. Gudea The “Guti” people invade from the mountains and wipe out Akkadians. Only Gudea, and Lagash remain independent. Gudea’s patron God is Ningirsu. Seated Statue of Gudea 2100 BCE diorite temple statue • Ensi (priest King) of Lagash- 20 statues survive • Holding temple plans- he built /rebuilt many temples • Piety • Power and authority: – messages to the gods, temple plans, – diorite (rare), bare shoulder, – muscular physique Hammurabi (Babylonian) The Amorites conquer the “Guti” and make their capital in Babylon Law Code of Hammurabi One of the earliest law codes ever written. Different punishments for different people (rank)> Most laws concern property rights Sun god (Shamash), hands Hamurabi a rope, a ring, and a (measuring)rod of kingship. He is literally given right to rule by god. Horned helmet, bare shoulder Engages his God directly. Lamassu Winged Human-headed guardian figures meant to ward off enemies, seen and unseen 5 legs Front – at attention Side – walking ASSYRIA Babylon falls to the Hittites in 1595 BCE From 900-600 BCE Assyrians take charge Assyrian Art Praised the greatness of the King Figures are stoic but the animals are expressive Domination over wild beasts shows authority of king over his people. Lion Slaughters are the most frequent Perceptualism: The Assyrians continued this same interest in detail and brought it to an even higher level. Primarily they are known for their historical battle scenes. These lined the palace courtyards at cities like ancient Khorsabad, Nimrud, and Nineveh. Their main function was to impress dignitaries and visitors with the might and heroism of their Empire, which lasted longer than any other in the region—for approx. 600 years. Ashurnasirpal Kalhu (Nimrud)
  • 5. Sargon II Citadel at Dur Sharukin Ashurbanipal Nineveh Neo-Babylonia King Nebuchadnezzar “I caused a mighty wall to circumscribe Babylon…so that the enemy who would do evil would not threaten… King Nubuchadnezzar the biblical Daniel’s “King of Kings” Hanging Gardens of Babylon Etemenanki "temple of the foundation of heaven and earth" Ishtar Gate Glazed brick over mud walls Animals guard the city Lions sacred to the goddess Ishtar Marduk- Patron God of Babylon Dragon is sacred to Marduk PERSIA Darius Xerxes(son) Persepolis “Repousse”
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