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  Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji, No. 56, Special Issue, English, Spring 2010,    pp. 69-87   69   Classicism and/or Romanticism: A Survey of Aesthetics in The Winter's Tale Zahra Jannessari Ladani   PhD Student of English Literature, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Tehran, I.R. Iran Fazel Asadi Amjad   Assistant Professor, Faculty of Humanities, University of Tarbiat Moallem, I.R., Iran (Received: 25 Jun. 2008, Accepted: 20 Oct.. 2009)   Abstract This article aims at reading The Winter's Tale  with respect to Hegel's argument in  Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art  . The researchers try to apply Hegel's notion of art to the artistic aspects of the mentioned play by Shakespeare. The play's aesthetic values will be examined and illustrated from two differing but interdependent classical and romantic  perspectives based on Hegelian definitions pertaining to diverse epochs through which art and its representations were developed. The researchers will show that the play contains characteristics of both classical and romantic art forms, but this does not necessitate that Shakespeare believed in these notions and exploited them quite innocently. Rather, as the objective of this study will manifest, it will be proved that Shakespeare neither approved of the classical notions of art nor adopted the romantic version, but stood on the borderline in between and manipulated them intelligently and  playfully giving a parodic version of both aesthetics. Key Words : Shakespeare, Hegel, Aesthetics, Classic Art Form, Romantic Art Form, Sculpture, Paradox.  ___________________________________________________________________ * Tel: 021-61119053, Fax: 021-88634500, E-mail:  zjannessari@ut.ac.ir  ** Tel: 021-61119053, Fax: 021-88634500, E-mail:  asadi@saba.tmu.ac.ir    70   Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji, No. 56, Spring 2010   Introduction   Then sculpture and her sister-arts revive; Stones leaped to form, and rocks began to live. (Pope 2524: 701-02)  In Romanticism and Classicism T. E. Hulme brings forth the salient and long-debated argument of classicism and romanticism contrasted; in brief, he prophecies a classical revival in future literature. But the thing is that, in his debate, he introduces Racine as an extreme example of a classical poet. Coming to Shakespeare, however, he does not put him on the romantic side, but adopts  Nietzsche's categorization of classicism dichotomized in two levels: static and dynamic. Hulme believes that Shakespeare belongs to the classic of motion (Hulme 119). But to what extent could we rely on this statement? Or how can we measure Shakespeare's tendencies toward either classicism or romanticism? How can we be sure that he is not treating the two art forms grotesquely or parodically? These questions will be raised as soon as one reads Hulme's claim. The example of Hulme has just arbitrarily been chosen for the purpose of this essay. Thus, the article is to contend neither Hulme nor other writers who, on the contrary, classify Shakespeare as Romantic. Here, Hulme's judgment about Shakespeare will be put to test to find out to what extent the playwright employed either Classic or Romantic aesthetic notions in his works. To fulfill this aim, on the one hand, the scope of this study will be confined to the aesthetic aspects of The Winter's Tale ; on the other hand, a Hegelian model of reading through the play's aesthetics will be followed. Discussion From a Hegelian perspective, fine art srcinates from the fact that the idea of the Absolute comes to be known and realized only when it materializes itself in the form of beauty (Hegel 613-14). Now this form, responsible for the representation of the idea, adopts different manifestations in diverse epochs. In the first epoch, the  Classicism and/or Romanticism ...   71   Symbolic, the identity of content and form are not reached but there is merely a relationship between the two. We have only the indication of the inner meaning in an external appearance similar to that indication and the content it is supposed to manifest (Ibid 624). Put it differently, the sublime and its artistic form superficially agree with each other. That is why the form peculiar to this epoch, namely architecture, cannot represent the Ideal sufficiently; hence its disproportionate and heterogeneous nature. The second epoch is associated with the Classical art whereby there is perfect harmony between matter and form. In addition, the classical ideal corresponds to the portrayal of the Absolute in its independently self-reposing reality (Ibid). Here, the idea acquires more spiritual individuality and is more realistic, since it well intermingles with the sensuous and corporeal. The form pertaining to this epoch is sculpture and plastic arts which are more individualized and conscious than the Symbolic form of architecture. In the third epoch, art attains still more consciousness; romantic art introduces the idea as the sublime and tends toward infinitude so much so that no form (because form is finite) could appropriately reproduce that spirituality. So the form remains foreign and indifferent. Romantic art, thus, turns inward, but inexorably needs some kind of form to express itself. It has for both its content and form the subjectivity of emotion and feeling in its infinity and its finite particularity (Ibid). The forms are poetry, painting and music. Hegel believes that the Symbolic epoch is the initial stage of art production  pursuing the aspiration toward the Ideal as the true Idea of beauty. The idea, though the conception of the mind, has to be expressed via sensuous phenomena which are eventually unable to represent it perfectly. Architecture is the form for this stage as the beginning of art. It has not yet found the adequate material or the corresponding forms for the presentation of its spiritual content. The material is still inherently non-spiritual, i.e. heavy matter, shapeable only according to the laws of gravity (Ibid). Thus, forms such as monuments, emblems, and architecture are ineluctably  paradoxical, ambiguous, enigmatic and mysterious. However, the heterogeneity of  72   Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji, No. 56, Spring 2010   idea and form does not necessarily mean that material and form are arbitrarily  juxtaposed; here, form and idea are worked out by imagination to create the  beautiful and the free. This stage seems to be purely abstract and unconscious. Moving on to the Classical epoch, the art form still lays hold of heavy material in its spatial entirety with the exclusion of inorganic (Ibid 625) aspects. This form, heavily determined by the content, is the real life of the spirit, the human form and its objective organism, pervaded by spirit (Ibid). The form should be adequate, and capable of showing a lofty peace and tranquil greatness. So it should not be touched by the disunion and restriction of action, conflicts, and sufferings (Ibid). The proper art form possessing these features is sculpture (Ibid 624). In Concerning the Relation of the Plastic Arts to Nature , Wilhelm and Schelling enumerate prominent characteristics of the art: that it is wordless and its source is the soul; that it should be expressed like silent nature by the configuration of sensuous works (Wilhelm & Schelling 324). They argue that the plastic works are, furthermore, empty because the sublime and absolute cannot be demonstrated in them; hence, the intensification of relativity (Ibid 328), and multiplicity. Plastic arts are considered to be a moderation of expression of passions due to their observation of two principles: activity (representative of the soul) and rest (representative of matter) (Ibid 348). Compared with the Symbolic art forms, the Classical ones enjoy more consciousness. In the romantic phase, the object of human consciousness is no longer God as God; here, the meaning of God represents itself as man's actual life of subjectively living action and suffering, or the spirit of the community, spirit with a sense of itself, mind in its privation, its sacrifice, or its blessedness and joy in life and activity in the midst of the existing world (Hegel 625). Now the idea is forced out of reconciliation with the corporeal and backs upon itself. Hegel contends that this art form cannot use heavy matter with its three-dimensional character. Rather, it has to inwardize or spiritualize (Ibid) that matter. This is done through the cancellation of the real and sensuous appearance. Hegel recommends painting, poetry, and music as tolerably representative of the
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