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1. oreilly.comSpreading the knowledge of innovators Want to read more? You can buy this book at oreilly.com in print and ebook format. Buy 2 books, get the 3rd FREE! Use…
  • 1. oreilly.comSpreading the knowledge of innovators Want to read more? You can buy this book at oreilly.com in print and ebook format. Buy 2 books, get the 3rd FREE! Use discount code: OPC10 All orders over $29.95 qualify for free shipping within the US. It’s also available at your favorite book retailer, including the iBookstore, the Android Marketplace, and Amazon.com.
  • 2. Head First PMP Third Edition by Jennifer Greene, PMP and Andrew Stellman, PMP Copyright © 2014 Jennifer Greene and Andrew Stellman. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol, CA 95472. O’Reilly Media books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles (http://my.safaribooksonline.com). For more information, contact our corporate/ institutional sales department: (800) 998-9938 or corporate@oreilly.com. Series Creators: Kathy Sierra, Bert Bates Editor: Courtney Nash Design Editor: Louise Barr Cover Designers: Karen Montgomery, Louise Barr Production Editors: Melanie Yarbrough Indexer: Bob Pfahler Proofreader: Rachel Monaghan Page Viewers: Quentin the whippet and Tequila the pomeranian Printing History: March 2007: First Edition. July 2009: Second Edition. December 2013: Third Edition. The O’Reilly logo is a registered trademark of O’Reilly Media, Inc. The Head First series designations, Head First PMP, and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. PMP and PMBOK are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and O’Reilly Media, Inc., was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in caps or initial caps. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and the authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. No dogs, rabbits, or bears were harmed in the making of this book. OK, maybe one bear…but he’ll get over it. ISBN: 978-1-449-36491-5 [M] [2013-12-09]
  • 3. ix table of contents Table of Contents (Summary) Intro xxv 1 Introduction: Why get certified? 1 2 Organizations, constraints, and projects: In good company 37 3 The process framework: It all fits together 69 4 Project integration management: Getting the job done 97 5 Scope management: Doing the right stuff 163 6 Time management: Getting it done on time 243 7 Cost management: Watching the bottom line 335 8 Quality management: Getting it right 407 9 Human resource management: Getting the team together 459 10 Communications management: Getting the word out 509 11 Project risk management: Planning for the unknown 551 12 Procurement management: Getting some help 611 13 Stakeholder management: Keeping everyone engaged 659 14 Professional responsibility: Making good choices 693 15 A little last-minute review: Check your knowledge 707 16 Practice makes perfect: Practice PMP exam 741 Table of Contents (the real thing) Your brain on PMP. Here you are trying to learn something, while here your brain is doing you a favor by making sure the learning doesn’t stick. Your brain’s thinking,“Better leave room for more important things, like which wild animals to avoid and whether naked snowboarding is a bad idea.”So how do you trick your brain into thinking that your life depends on knowing enough to get through the PMP exam? Intro Who is this book for? xxvi We know what you’re thinking xxvii Metacognition: thinking about thinking xxix Here’s what YOU can do to bend your brain into submission xxxi Read me xxxii The technical review team xxxiv Acknowledgments xxxv
  • 4. x table of contents Why get certified? 1 Tired of facing the same old problems? If you’ve worked on a lot of projects, you know that you face the same problems, over and over again. It’s time to learn some common solutions to those problems. There’s a whole lot that project managers have learned over the years, and passing the PMP exam is your ticket to putting that wisdom into practice. Get ready to change the way you manage your projects forever. Introduction Do these problems seem familiar? 2 Projects don’t have to be this way 4 Your problems…already solved 5 What you need to be a good project manager 6 Understand your company’s big picture 10 Your project has value 11 Portfolios, programs, and projects have a lot in common 12 Portfolios, programs, and projects all use charters 13 What a project IS… 17 … and what a project is NOT 17 A day in the life of a project manager 19 How project managers run great projects 21 Project management offices help you do a good job, every time 22 Good leadership helps the team work together 23 Project teams are made of people 24 Operations management handles the processes that make your company tick 26 A PMP certification is more than just passing a test 30 Meet a real-life PMP-certified project manager 31 Exam Questions 32 The boss’s delivery date When the project will actually be done
  • 5. xi table of contents 3 In good company If you want something done right…better hope you’re in the right kind of organization. All projects are about teamwork—but how your team works depends a lot on the type of organization you’re in. In this chapter, you’ll learn about the different types of organizations around—and which type you should look for the next time you need a new job. Organizations, constraints, and projects A day in Kate’s life 38 Kate wants a new job 39 There are different types of organizations 42 Kate takes a new job 47 Stakeholders are impacted by your project 49 More types of stakeholders 50 Your project team has lots of roles too 51 Back to Kate’s maintenance nightmare 52 Managing project constraints 54 You can’t manage your project in a vacuum 58 Kate’s project needs to follow company processes 59 Kate makes some changes… 60 … and her project is a success! 61 Exam Questions 64 2 It all fits together All of the work you do on a project is made up of processes. Once you know how all the processes in your project fit together, it’s easy to remember everything you need to know for the PMP exam. There’s a pattern to all of the work that gets done on your project. First you plan it, then you get to work. While you are doing the work, you are always comparing your project to your original plan. When things start to get off-plan, it’s your job to make corrections and put everything back on track. And the process framework—the process groups and knowledge areas—is the key to all of this happening smoothly. The process framework Cooking up a project 70 Projects are like recipes 72 If your project’s really big, you can manage it in phases 74 Phases can also overlap 75 Break it down 76 Anatomy of a process 79 Combine processes to complete your project 82 Knowledge areas organize the processes 83 The benefits of successful project management 89 Exam Questions 91 Time Cost Scope Resources Quality Risk
  • 6. xii table of contents 4 These clients are definitely not satisfied 100 The day-to-day work of a project manager 101 The six Integration Management processes 102 Start your project with the Initiating processes 105 Integration Management and the process groups 106 The Develop Project Charter process 108 Make the case for your project 109 Use expert judgment and facilitation techniques to write your project charter 110 A closer look at the project charter 112 Two things you’ll see over and over and over… 115 Plan your project! 118 The Project Management plan lets you plan ahead for problems 119 A quick look at all those subsidiary plans 121 Question Clinic: The “just-the-facts-ma’am” question 124 The Direct and Manage Project Work process 126 The project team creates deliverables 127 Executing the project includes repairing defects 128 Eventually, things WILL go wrong… 130 Sometimes you need to change your plans 131 Look for changes and deal with them 132 Make only the changes that are right for your project 133 Changes, defects, and corrections 134 Decide your changes in change control meetings 134 How the processes interact with one another 135 Control your changes; use change control 136 Preventing or correcting problems 138 Finish the work, close the project 140 So why INTEGRATION Management? 142 Integration Management kept your project on track, and the teachers satisfied 145 Exam Questions 152 Enterprise environmental factors Organizational process assets Manage the work so it gets done efficiently. Monitoring and Controlling Executing Direct and Manage Project Execution Monitor and Control Project Work Perform Integrated Change Control Getting the job done Want to make success look easy? It’s not as hard as you think. In this chapter, you’ll learn about a few processes you can use in your projects every day. Put these into place, and your sponsors and stakeholders will be happier than ever. Get ready for Integration Management. Project integration management
  • 7. xiii table of contents 5 Updates Project scope statement Work breakdown structureProject Management plan Doing the right stuff Confused about exactly what you should be working on? Once you have a good idea of what needs to be done, you need to track your scope as the project work is happening. As each goal is accomplished, you confirm that all of the work has been done and make sure that the people who asked for it are satisfied with the result. In this chapter, you’ll learn the tools that help your project team set its goals and keep everybody on track. Scope management Out of the frying pan… 164 …and right back into the fire 165 It looks like we have a scope problem 169 The power of Scope Management 172 The six Scope Management processes 173 Plan your scoping processes 174 Collect requirements for your project 177 Talk to your stakeholders 178 Make decisions about requirements 179 Use a questionnaire to get requirements from a bigger group of people 182 A prototype shows users what your product will be like 183 Now you’re ready to write a requirements document 184 Define the scope of the project 187 The project scope statement tells you what you have to do 190 Create the work breakdown structure 196 The inputs for the WBS come from other processes 197 Break it down by project or phase 199 Decompose deliverables into work packages 200 Inside the work package 206 The project scope baseline is a snapshot of the plan 208 The outputs of the Create WBS process 210 Why scope changes 213 The Control Scope process 215 Anatomy of a change 216 A closer look at the change control system 218 Make sure the team delivered the right product 223 The stakeholders decide when the project is done 224 The project is ready to ship! 227 Exam Questions 231
  • 8. xiv table of contents 6 Getting it done on time Time management is what most people think of when they think of project managers.It’s where the deadlines are set and met. It starts with figuring out the work you need to do, how you will do it, what resources you’ll use, and how long it will take. From there, it’s all about developing and controlling that schedule. Time management Reality sets in for the happy couple 244 Time management helps with aggressive timelines 246 Plan your scheduling processes 250 Use the Define Activities process to break down the work 252 Tools and techniques for Define Activities 253 Rolling wave planning lets you plan as you go 254 Define activities outputs 257 The Sequence Activities process puts everything in order 259 Diagram the relationship between activities 260 Leads and lags add time between activities 265 Create the network diagram 267 What you need to estimate resources 269 Figuring out how long the project will take 272 Estimation tools and techniques 275 Create the duration estimate 278 How to find the critical path 286 Finding the float for any activity 288 Figure out the early start and early finish 293 Figure out the latest possible start and finish 294 Add early and late durations to your diagrams 295 Take a backward pass to find late start and finish 296 Crash the schedule 302 Modeling techniques 304 Other Develop Schedule tools and techniques 305 Outputs of Develop Schedule 306 Influence the factors that cause change 310 Control Schedule inputs and outputs 311 What Control Schedule updates 312 Measuring and reporting performance 313 Control Schedule tools and techniques 314 Exam Questions 325 If the caterers come too early, the food will sit around under heat lamps! But too late, and the band won’t have time to play. I just don’t see how we’ll ever work this all out! Activity duration estimates Activity attributes Resource calendar Activity resource requirements Network diagram Activity list
  • 9. xv table of contents 7 Watching the bottom line Every project boils down to money.If you had a bigger budget, you could probably get more people to do your project more quickly and deliver more. That’s why no project plan is complete until you come up with a budget. But no matter whether your project is big or small, and no matter how many resources and activities are in it, the process for figuring out the bottom line is always the same! Cost management Time to expand the Head First Lounge 336 Introducing the Cost Management processes 339 Plan how you’ll estimate, track, and control your costs 340 Now you’ve got a consistent way to manage costs 341 What Alice needs before she can estimate costs 342 Other tools and techniques used in Estimate Costs 345 Let’s talk numbers 346 Now Alice knows how much the Lounge will cost 348 The Determine Budget process 350 What you need to build your budget 351 Determine budget: how to build a budget 352 Question Clinic: The red herring 356 The Control Costs process is a lot like schedule control 358 A few new tools and techniques 361 Look at the schedule to figure out your budget 362 How to calculate planned value 363 Earned value tells you how you’re doing 365 How to calculate earned value 366 Put yourself in someone else’s shoes 368 Is your project behind or ahead of schedule? 370 Are you over budget? 372 The earned value management formulas 373 Interpret CPI and SPI numbers to gauge your project 374 Forecast what your project will look like when it’s done 378 Once you’ve got an estimate, you can calculate a variance! 379 Finding missing information 382 Keep your project on track with TCPI 385 A high TCPI means a tight budget 386 Exam Questions 395 $ $ $ $
  • 10. xvi table of contents 8 Getting it right It’s not enough to make sure you get it done on time and under budget.You need to be sure you make the right product to suit your stakeholders’ needs. Quality means making sure that you build what you said you would and that you do it as efficiently as you can. That means trying not to make too many mistakes and always keeping your project working toward the goal of creating the right product! Quality management What is quality? 408 You need more than just tests to figure out quality 409 Once you know what the product is supposed to do, it’s easy to tell which tests pass and which fail 410 Quality up close 411 Quality vs. grade 412 “An ounce of prevention…” 414 Plan Quality is how you prevent defects 417 How to plan for quality 418 The Quality Management plan gives you what you need to manage quality 420 Inspect your deliverables 423 Use the planning outputs for Control Quality 424 The seven basic tools of quality 425 Pareto charts, flowcharts, and histograms 426 Checksheets and scatter diagrams 427 More quality control tools 427 Question Clinic: The “which-one” question 432 Quality control means finding and correcting defects 434 Trouble at the Black Box 3000TM factory 437 Introducing Quality Assurance 438 A closer look at some tools and techniques 439 More ideas behind quality assurance 440 The Black Box 3000TM makes record profits! 445 Exam Questions 450 The Black Box 3000TM Lisa also inspected theblueprints for the blackbox when they were designed. She looked for defects in the parts as they were being made too.
  • 11. xvii table of contents 9 Getting the team together Behind every successful project is a great team.So how do you make sure that you get—and keep—the best possible team for your project? You need to plan carefully, set up a good working environment, and negotiate for the best people you can find. But it’s not enough to put a good team together… If you want your project to go well, you’ve got to keep the team motivated and deal with any conflicts that happen along the way. Human resource management gives you the tools you need to get the best team for the job and lead them through a successful project. Human resource management Mike needs a new team 460 Cubicle conversation 461 Get your team together and keep them moving 462 Figure out who you need on your team 464 The Staffing Management plan 468 Get the team together 470 Develop your project team 474 Develop the team with your management skills 475 Your interpersonal skills can make a big difference for your team 476 Lead the team with your management skills 478 Motivate your team 480 Stages of team development 482 How’s the team doing? 484 Managing your team means solving problems 486 Conflict management up close 487 How to resolve a conflict 488 The Cows Gone Wild IV team ROCKS! 493 Question Clinic: The “have-a-meeting” question 494 Exam Questions 501 Staffing Management plan Roles and responsibilities Organization charts
  • 12. xviii table of contents 10 Getting the word out Communications management is about keeping everybody in the loop.Have you ever tried talking to someone in a really loud, crowded room? That’s what running a project is like if you don’t get a handle on communications. Luckily, there’s Communications Management, which is how to get everyone talking about the work that’s being done, so that they all stay on the same page. That way, everyone has the information they need to resolve any issues and keep the project moving forward. Communications management Party at the Head First Lounge! 510 But something’s not right 511 Anatomy of communication 512 Get a handle on communication 514 Tell everyone what’s going on 520 Get the message? 522 More Manage Communications tools 524 Let everyone know how the project’s going 527 Take a close look at the work being done 528 Now you can get the word out 531 People aren’t talking! 533 Count the channels of communication 534 Question Clinic: The calculation question 538 Exam Questions 544 When there are three people on the project, there are three lines of communication. But add three more peopleto the project, and youadd a LOT of potentialcommunication to the project!How do you get a handle on it? Don’t forget to count the project manager!
  • 13. xix table of contents 11 Planning for the unknown Project risk management What’s a risk? 552 How you deal with risk 553 Plan Risk Management 554 Use a risk breakdown structure to categorize risks 556 Anatomy of a risk 558 What could happen to your project? 560 Information-gathering techniques for Identify Risks 561 More Identify Risks techniques 562 Where to look for risks 564 Rank your risks 566 Examine each risk in the register 567 Qualitative vs. quantitative analysis 572 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 573 First gather the data… 574 …then analyze it 575 Calculate the expected monetary value of your risks 576 Decision tree analysis uses EMV to help you make choices 578 Update the risk register based on your quantitative analysis results 580 How do you respond to a risk? 582 Response planning can even find more risks 583 Add risk responses to the register 585 Control Risks is another change control process 588 How to control your risks 589 More control risk tools
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