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  CONTENTS Index of Charts9Foreword11Preface to the Third Edition13Preface to the Second Edition15Preface to the First Edition17 P ART 1: B IBLICAL T HEOLOGY 1. Introduction to Biblical Theology232. Introduction to Old Testament Theology313. Theology of the Edenic Era434. Theology of the Noahic Era495. Theology of the Patriarchal Era556. Theology of the Mosaic Era597. Theology of the Monarchical Era658. Theology of the Prophetic Era699. Introduction to New Testament Theology7910. Theology of the Synoptics8311. Theology of Acts9712. Theology of James10313. Theology of Paul10714.Theology of Hebrews12115. Theologies of Peter and Jude12916.Theology of John137 P ART 2: S  YSTEMATIC T HEOLOGY 17. Introduction to Systematic Theology15118.Bibliology: Doctrine of the Bible15719. Theology Proper: Doctrine of God18920. Christology: Doctrine of Christ22921. Pneumatology: Doctrine of the Holy Spirit25922. Angelology: Doctrines of Angels, Satan, and Demons30123. Anthropology and Hamartiology: Doctrines of Man and Sin31524. Soteriology: Doctrine of Salvation33325. Ecclesiology: Doctrine of the Church36326. Eschatology: Doctrine of Last Things387 P ART 3: H ISTORICAL T HEOLOGY 27. Introduction to Historical Theology43928. Ancient Theology44329. Medieval Theology46730. Reformation Theology477  31. Modern Theology495 P ART 4: D OGMATIC T HEOLOGY 32. Introduction to Dogmatic Theology50533. Calvinistic Theology50934. Arminian Theology52335. Covenant Theology53736. Dispensational Theology55337. Dogmatic Roman Catholic Theology571 P ART 5: C ONTEMPORARY T HEOLOGY 38. Introduction to Contemporary Theology58939. Liberal Theology59340. Neoorthodox Theology60341. Radical Theologies61942. Historicist Theologies63143. Socialist Theologies63544. Catholic Theology64345. Conservative Theology65346. Evangelical Feminism66747. Charismatic Theology67948.The Emerging Church69549. Postmodern Theology70750. Post-Evangelical Theology71551. Reformed Theology725Epilogue737Glossary739Index of Persons765Index of Subjects771Index of Scripture787  1 INTRODUCTION TO BIBLICAL THEOLOGY D EFINITION THE TERM  BIBLICAL THEOLOGY  can be used in different ways. Al-though the usage adopted in this volume focuses on a special method of theological study, it should be understood that the term is widely used torefer to a movement that is basically antagonistic to evangelical faith. Thisnegative usage is here considered and discarded before the legitimate mean-ing of biblical theology is discussed.First of all, then, this expression is used to describe the biblical theol-ogy movement. This was an outgrowth of liberalism and neoorthodoxy. Itbegan with the publication of Walther Eichrodt’s first volume of Old Tes-tament theology in 1933 and ended with the publication of von Rad’ssecond volume of Old Testament theology in 1960. 1 Brevard Childs sug-gests the movement experienced its demise in May 1963 with the publi-cation of John A. T. Robinson’s Honest to God. The movement initially was a reaction to liberalism and sought a returnto an exegetical study of the Scriptures, particularly emphasizing a studyof biblical words. Kittel’s monumental ten-volume Theological Dictionary of the New Testament is an outgrowth of that. As a movement, however, it neverseparated itself from its liberal underpinnings; it retained the historical-critical methodology. For example, in studying the gospels, adherents of the biblical theology movement applied the historical-critical methodol-ogy in attempting to discover which of the words attributed to Christwere actually spoken by Him. While the movement recognized the weak message of liberalism of theeighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it retained the liberal presuppositionsconcerning the Bible. Adherents held to the neoorthodox view of revela-tion, taught evolution as a theory of srcins, and emphasized the humanaspect of the Bible rather than the divine. As a result, the movement wasself-defeating. It was impossible to do a serious, exegetical study of theScriptures while at the same time denying the authority of the Scriptures. 2  A second way in which the term biblical theology is used is for that methodology that takes its material in a historically oriented manner fromthe Old and New Testaments and arrives at a theology. It is exegetical innature, drawing its material from the Bible as opposed to a philosophical  understanding of theology; it stresses the historical circumstances in whichdoctrines were propounded; it examines the theology within a given periodof history (as in Noahic or Abrahamic eras) or of an individual writer (asPauline or Johannine writings).Biblical theology in the above-defined sense may be called “that branchof theological science which deals systematically with the historically con-ditioned progress of the self-revelation of God as deposited in the Bible.” 3 Several elements are important to observe in this definition: 4 Systematization Biblical theology investigates the periods of history in which God hasrevealed Himself or the doctrinal emphases of the different biblical writ-ers as set forth in a systematic fashion. Biblical theology, while presentedin a systematized form, is distinct from systematic theology that assimilatestruth from the entire Bible and from outside the Scriptures in systematiz-ing biblical doctrine. Biblical theology is narrower. It concentrates on theemphasis of a given period of history as in the Old Testament or on theexplicit teach ing of a particular writer as in the New Testament. History Biblical theology pays attention to the important historical circum-stances in which the biblical doctrines were given. What can be learnedfrom the Old Testament era of revelation? What were the circumstancesin the writing of Matthew or John? What were the circumstances of the ad-dressees of the letter to the Hebrews? These are important questions thathelp resolve the doctrinal emphasis of a particular period or of a specificwriter. Progress of Revelation  An orthodox doctrine that evangelicals have long held is the belief inprogressive revelation; God did not reveal all truth about Himself at onetime but revealed Himself “piecemeal,” portion by portion to differentpeople throughout history (cf. Heb. 1:1). Biblical theology traces thatprogress of revelation, noting the revelation concerning Himself that Godhas given in a particular era or through a particular writer. Hence, God’sself-disclosure was not as advanced to Noah and Abraham as it was toIsaiah. An earlier book of the New Testament, such as James, reflects a moreprimitive view of the church than books written later, such as the pas-toral epistles. Biblical Nature In contrast to systematic theology, which draws its information aboutGod from any and every source, biblical theology has a narrower focus, 24 THE MOODY HANDBOOK OF THEOLOGY
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