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UNIT 8: GROUP IV AND TRANSITION ELEMENTS The AS Units 1 and 2 should have been completed, along with the sections in A2 Sub-unit 6B dealing with Eo values. Recommended Prior Knowledge: Context: These two sub-units can be studied on their own, or in conjunction with each other. Apart from the proviso above, they can be studied before or after the other A2 Units. Sub-unit 8A covers the properties of the Group IV elements, from carbon to lead, and the properties and reactions of their oxides and
  9.3(e) describe and explain therelative stability of higher andlower oxidation states of theelements in their oxides andaqueous cations, including -where relevant - E  o   valuesInclude examples of CO as a reducing agent (e.g. Fe 2 O 3   → Fe) and PbO 2 as an oxidising agent (e.g.PbO 2 + HCl → Cl 2 ). Point out that Sn 2+ is a useful reducing agent, and give practice in predictingreactions using E o values for Sn 4+  /Sn 2+ and Pb 4+  /Pb 2+ , and carrying them out in the test tube wherepossible. Suitable reagents to react with Sn 2+ (aq) or Pb 4+ (aq)/PbO 2 include the follows: Br - (aq), Br 2 (aq),I - (aq), I 2 (aq), MnO 4- (aq), Cr 2 O 72- (aq).M 96C+H 18.3R+N 11.59.3(f) recognize the properties anduses of ceramics based onsilicon(IV) oxidebriefly mention glass making, using Na 2 CO 3 + SiO 2 , and the higher melting properties of high-silicaglass (“Pyrex”) and quartz. Clays (and hence pottery and china) are based on aluminosilicatestructures, which become cross-linked on baking, making them hard and high-melting.M 96C+H 18.3R+N 11.6 www.xtremepapers.net
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