9701_y09_sw_8_2

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UNIT 8: GROUP IV AND TRANSITION ELEMENTS The AS Units 1 and 2 should have been completed, along with the sections in A2 Sub-unit 6B dealing with Eo values. Recommended Prior Knowledge: Context: These two sub-units can be studied on their own, or in conjunction with each other. Apart from the proviso above, they can be studied before or after the other A2 Units. Sub-unit 8A covers the properties of the Group IV elements, from carbon to lead, and the properties and reactions of their oxides and
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  9.3(e) describe and explain therelative stability of higher andlower oxidation states of theelements in their oxides andaqueous cations, including -where relevant - E  o   valuesInclude examples of CO as a reducing agent (e.g. Fe 2 O 3   → Fe) and PbO 2 as an oxidising agent (e.g.PbO 2 + HCl → Cl 2 ). Point out that Sn 2+ is a useful reducing agent, and give practice in predictingreactions using E o values for Sn 4+  /Sn 2+ and Pb 4+  /Pb 2+ , and carrying them out in the test tube wherepossible. Suitable reagents to react with Sn 2+ (aq) or Pb 4+ (aq)/PbO 2 include the follows: Br - (aq), Br 2 (aq),I - (aq), I 2 (aq), MnO 4- (aq), Cr 2 O 72- (aq).M 96C+H 18.3R+N 11.59.3(f) recognize the properties anduses of ceramics based onsilicon(IV) oxidebriefly mention glass making, using Na 2 CO 3 + SiO 2 , and the higher melting properties of high-silicaglass (“Pyrex”) and quartz. Clays (and hence pottery and china) are based on aluminosilicatestructures, which become cross-linked on baking, making them hard and high-melting.M 96C+H 18.3R+N 11.6 www.xtremepapers.net
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