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   Leadership, Mentoring, Coaching and Motivation No. 11 ~ 2010      and other types of State visits Due to development of contemporary means of communication, chiefs of State and of Governments, as well as international af-fairs ministries added to their contacts and  began involving in activities that were once linked to diplomats’ skills exclusively; at the same time, these practices rob Governments and chiefs of State of the precious cover con-stituted by diplomats who work in secret, with greater spirit liberty and who can be oriented and disavowed when conclusions do not meet everyone’s views.Diplomacy in the 20th century introduc-es new principles and methods. Diplomatic activity widened its range considerably and it grew in the political field, especially through the introduction of new components. Aside from intense bilateral negotiations, multilat-eral negotiations become highly important in international conferences and organizations. Community diplomacy will also gain a sig-nificant place .Diplomacy ceased to be clerical or be-long to international organizations only. Diplomacy with a top secret, confidential character, with verbal notes and artful writ-ing, with excessive importance shown to Diplomacy and diplomatic functions  Abstract:                                           Key words:   Diplomacy, diplomatic functions, diplomatic mission, diplomatic visits ~ PhD Associate Professor Oana Iucu  (Faculty of Bussines and Administration)    Leadership, Mentoring, Coaching and Motivation No. 11 ~ 2010 protocol ceased to exist. The new type of diplomacy required true understanding of economic and financial data, besides a clear vision on political issues. This new diploma-cy estranged from the old one owing to the idea of equality and to faith in diplomacy through conferences and experts.After World War II, new conditions and new diplomatic practices came into sight, while the role of chiefs of State and Governments increased. Fading sovereign subjectivity and diminishing secrecy brought diplomacy closer to real problems of peoples,  but didn’t deplete it of its specific features. Along with public debate of treaties, discrete and small negotiations still take place, thus defending secrecy of discussions and of high-ly important information.Various problems that emerge in the sphere of international relations cannot be totally solved by the chief of State or by in-ternational affairs ministries, since they can’t approach nor directly treat international political, economical or juridical matters  between States. Meetings at congresses or bi-lateral contacts between chiefs of State assure the approach of a limited number of prob-lems and under no circumstances can they replace constant activity, claimed by main-taining and developing relations between States. In addition, the element of continuity in relations between States must be assured, required by the fact that establishing and in-tensifying collaboration and friendship rela-tions are the result of an ongoing activity.Hereby, the necessity to institute and maintain State representations abroad, whose task is to negotiate and act in the name of their State and help solve numerous and intricate mundane problems. At first, these trustees were generically called diplomatic agents and later diplomatic representations or missions.Accordingly, the diplomatic mission is a State organ, belonging to the sending State. One of the most significant contributions of the Vienna Convention as regards diplomatic relations is the importance given to the dip-lomatic mission institution, considering it an independent entity. Enjoying immunities and distinctive privileges, the mission offers cohesion and organic unity in the actions of its members.The diplomatic mission constitutes the main instrument in founding and maintain-ing diplomatic relations and as such it con-tributes overtly and directly to collaboration  between States. Wishing to establish relations with other countries, all States independently of their size, economic power or political re-gime institute a greater or a smaller number of diplomatic missions 1 .The diplomatic mission performs func-tions corresponding to its goals, contributing to mutual understanding and close relations  between two States, as well as to promoting friendly multilateral cooperation between them. The sending State must give its diplo-matic mission instructions that do not exceed its functions, otherwise diplomats risk to be declared as undesirable. Also, the sending State must show due respect to diplomatic representatives’ activities, related to their functions 2 . 1 Alexandru Burian, “Introduction in Diplomatic Practice and International Procedure”, Cartier ju-ridic Publishing House, Chisinau, 2000, p. 14. 2 Gheorghe Iacob, “Introduction in Diplomacy, Foundation Axis Publishing House, Iasi, 1997, p. 344.   Leadership, Mentoring, Coaching and Motivation No. 11 ~ 2010  According to article 3 of the 1961 Vienna Convention 3  , the functions of a diplomatic mission are as follows:1) Representing the sending State in the receiving State;2) Protecting in the receiving State the interests of the sending State and of its nationals, within the limits per-mitted by international law;3) Negotiating with the Government of the receiving State;4) Ascertaining by all lawful means conditions and developments in the receiving State, and reporting there-on to the Government of the sending State;5) Promoting friendly relations be-tween the sending State and the re-ceiving State, and developing their economic, cultural and scientific relations.The second paragraph of article 3 in the Vienna Convention also shows the right of a diplomatic mission to perform consular functions 4 . Showing States’ practices and dominant opinions in their doctrines, the depiction of the diplomatic mission’s functions crystal-lizes, in the field of positive law, the process of progressive development of diplomatic institutions nowadays. Consequently, an es-sential function of any diplomatic mission is promoting friendly relations and collabora-tion between the two States at economical, cultural and scientific levels. 3 The Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations, adopted on April, 18th 1961 and ratified by Ro-mania according to Decree no. 556 from July, 4th 1968, published in the Official Bulletin, part I, no. 89/1968.  4 Idem, part I, no. 89. Functions of diplomacy are organically interlinked and segregation could lead to a distorted image of the diplomatic institution 5 . 1) Representation  – it is the function which permanent missions performed more visibly since their establishment as organs of external relations of States. The representa-tion function means that diplomatic agents participate to events in public life, standing for the sending State, i.e. the approval at-titude which it assumes with respect to sig-nificant moments in the public life of the country of residence. The diplomatic mission doesn’t represent the chief of State nor the Government, but the sending State as subject of international law. This is why it is neces-sary to make a clear distinction between the function of representation of a diplomatic mission and the juridical act of representa-tion in international law. International rep-resentation of States is a juridical rapport on whose ground a State grants another State the right to fulfill juridical actions towards a third State. Subsequently, in the case of inter-national representation we can identify three subjects of international law. It is not the case of diplomatic mission, which is not a subject of international law, but an organ that helps maintaining and developing relations be-tween two States as subjects of the diplomatic rapport. 2) Negotiation  – similar to representa-tion, it is one of the functions that permanent diplomatic missions performed since their establishment. Negotiation means examin-ing a problem of common interest in order to solve it. 5 Gheorghe Iacob, “Introduction in Diplomacy”, Foundation Axis Publishing House, Iasi, 1997, p. 344.     Leadership, Mentoring, Coaching and Motivation No. 11 ~ 2010  From this point of view, negotia-tion cannot be limited to discussions in the process of sealing international accords. Currently, they represent an important field in the activity of a diplomatic mission, per-forming the negotiation function when con-ducting discussions with competent organs of the receiving State on problems of mutual concern: defending the interests of the send-ing State’s citizens on the territory of the re-ceiving State, solving litigations, obtaining advantages and preventing any political and economical measures that would handicap one State or the other etc. 6 Negotiations can be official (initiated formally in the name of two States) or offi-cious (probe contacts that do not commit the States in any way). Official negotiations are direct (between the chief of the diplomatic mission and the chief of State) or indirect (be-tween the chief of the diplomatic mission and the international affairs ministry or the sub-ordinates of the latter).Negotiation is often considered a mix-ture of scientific and artistic methods, since the diplomat must have knowledge, experi-ence and talent to be a good negotiator. Study of history, in general, and history of diplo-matic relations, in particular, are very useful in developing the mastery of negotiation. 7 3) Information.  Promoting friendly relations, neighborliness and cooperation  between States depends on mutual under-standing of States’ economical, social and po-litical realities. 6 Dumitru Mazilu, “Treaty Regarding Negotiaion Theory and Practice”, Lumina Lex Publishing Ho-use, Bucharest, 2002, p. 460. 7 Idem, p. 460. Hereby the information and observa-tion function. By performing this function, the diplomatic mission provides the sending State data obtained by lawful means, regard-ing domestic life and international politics in the country of residence. The diplomatic mis-sion must perform its functions using official and officious contacts, mass media and local  journals, literary and scientific publications. Concerning this aspect, under section (d) from article 3, the 1961 Vienna Convention stresses the lawful character that any infor-mation source used by the diplomatic mis-sion must have. 4) Diplomatic protection.  There is a close connection between representation, ne-gotiation and protection functions. By per-forming the latter, the diplomatic mission achieves protection of interests that the send-ing State and the personnel under its author-ity might have in the country of residence. Actually, when the diplomatic mission repre-sents its State and negotiates with authorities in the receiving State, then it acts in the name of specific interests, in order to accredit and promote these interests.The defense function as recognized by international law allows the diplomatic mis-sion to offer diplomatic protection to citizens of the sending State, who are or live in the receiving State. Interventions at a diplomatic level can eliminate prejudicial pursuit, repair prejudice suffered by these citizens and try  by lawful means to defend them against un-lawfulness they could be subjected to 8 . 8 Gheorghe Iacob, “Introduction in Diplomacy”, Foundation Axis Publishing House, Iasi, 1997, p. 345.  
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