248631787 Review of Related Literature

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   As stated in the introduction, the object of this paper is to describe and discern the influence of income of janitors on their self-esteem (i.e. self-respect), and their identities in society as a whole. Before proceeding to the methods of this study, understanding must be acquired on these concepts and their theoretical connections. Identity, based on the work of Erik Erikson, can be divided into multiple categories. The first, involving ego-identity, is defined as a deep personality structure, which performs the supervisory, control and evaluation functions in order to preserve the self-identity, continuity and integrity of an individual under the conditions of systemic changes of the personality structure and social situation of its development within normative crises (Soldatova & Shlyapnikova, 2013). The second is personal identity, or the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish one person from another, which is determined by a successful establishment of ego-identity. The third, and last, is the social or cultural identity, which is the collection of social roles that a person might play (Erikson Stages of Development Learning Theories, n.d.). In the relevance of history concerning the social role of a janitor, the perception is usually negative. Even if the world is currently appreciating cross cultural exchanges and a relaxation of stereotypes due to globalization and a reliance of objective information, certain  jobs or roles will never completely lose the social stigma acquired over millennia. Examples will include the shudras or untouchables in India, who are associated with impurity and shunned due to their jobs involving cleaning or waste removal (Kutsenkov, 1986). Parallels were experienced in Japan in the form of the burakumin  or eta  who had virtually similar roles with shudras, as defined by Encyclopedia Britannica . In the feudal society of Europe, cleaning duty was given only to those on the lowest rung of the social ladder: peasants or criminals (Bloch, 1961). Thus, one can see that removal of waste and dirt was an unwanted task usually assigned to the marginalized sectors of society. Returning to the concept of identity, Erikson described its formation as a life-long task of ultimately finding a “meaningful sense of self”, which concurs with Marcia’s discernment of a need for commitment to an ideal or belief, and relevant to this case, an occupation. Erikson theorizes this as “Psychosocial Development”; a process of stages with inherent conflicts which are aimed to be surpassed in order to bring about mastery or ego strength/quality, thus bringing about personal growth (Cherry, n.d.). However, negative feelings and doubts (i.e. negative stigma around certain roles) often hinder ego quality, and therefore the complete development of identity. Affected persons will experience latent consequences such as a lack of a clearly defined sense of purpose and structure in their daily lives. They will also miss participation in goals and purposes beyond themselves, and recognition by a significant reference group for personal status and accomplishments (Basak & Gosh, 2008). This is where the next concept, self-esteem, comes in, to either aid or further degrade the feelings of ego strength and the development of a healthy identity. Technically, self-esteem is both a goal and a means in the area of identity development because people with low self-esteem, those struggling with personality problems and social scorn, wish for high self-esteem or a meaningful sense of self, which is utilized to further goals and aspirations. As stated by DeMarree and Rios (2014):  “ Self-esteem is strongly related to self-clarity, with people higher in self-esteem reporting more clear self-views. The most common measure of self clarity, the self-concept clarity scale, is in turn associated with a variety of important consequences, including reducedsymptoms of depression and eating disorders; better educational consequences; and a reduced likelihood of responding to an ego threat with anger and aggression. Because of these meaningful consequences, it is important to understand the antecedents of self-clarity. Campbell (1990) discussed two possible reasons why people high in self-esteem generally have higher clarity than people low in self-esteem. First, because people are motivated to seek both positive information about themselves and information that is consistent with their preexisting self-concepts, people low in self-esteem will likely seek both positive and negative (i.e., reflecting a bias to be consistent with their low self-esteem) self-relevant information. This results in an unclear, evaluatively incongruent self-concept. Second, the opposite causal path might hold –  low clarity could render people more open to potential negative self-relevant information, decreasing their overall level of self-esteem. ”  The clarity achieved by high self-esteem prunes away hesitancy and doubts and allows realistic commitments to be formed and kept. This in turn allows greater ego strength and personal growth. Self-esteem or self-views are also important determinants on how people think feel and behave (Demarree & Rios, 2014), Goldsmith, et al. (1996) asserts that: “O pinions about 'self' are the most treasured of all of our opinions and a key aspect of personality. Psychologists treat self-esteem as multidimensional, comprising notions of worth, goodness, health, appearance, skills, and social competence. Deficits in one area can be overcome by strengths in another. High self-esteem expresses the feeling that one is 'good enough,' a 'person of worth'. Psychologists also envision self-esteem to be a stable and enduring property of the individual, shaped during childhood. ”   Accordingly, low self-esteem has been associated with a number of psychological, physical, and social consequences that may influence identity development, including depression, anxiety, suicide, and disordered eating, violent behavior, earlier initiation of sexual activity (in girls), and substance use. Causes for these are listed as: older age, nontraditional family structure, special health care needs, parental aggravation, family stress, and low socioeconomic factor (McClure et al., 2010). This brings us to the relation between income and self esteem. Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings.   From the theoretical point of view, the basic mechanism by which self-esteem may increase earnings is very simple. Ability and effort are complements, so that, under the premise that individuals are uncertain about their own ability, higher self-esteem causes greater effort and earnings. The happiness and optimism wrought by high self-esteem cause good attitudes toward the work to materialize as well as stable mental health and character. Aside from this effect being persistent, the effect goes both ways as individual market outcomes (e.g. wages, promotions) impact self-image. This is because quantifiable markers such as income can provide a visible scale to  measure on e’s active and latent abilities. One’s “locus” control on wages positively influences psychological capital, which means higher self-esteem (Drago, 2011). Basak, R., & Ghosh, A. (2008). Ego-Identity Status and Its Relationship with Self-Esteem in  A Group of Late Adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology  , 34 (2), 337-344. Bloch, M. L. (1961). Feudal society  . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Campbell, J.D. (1990). Self-esteem and clarity of the self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 538  – 549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.3.538. Cherry, K. (n.d.). Understanding Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development.  About.com Psychology  . Retrieved August 11, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm Demarree, K. G., & Rios, K. (2014). Understanding the relationship between self-esteem and self-clarity: The role of desired self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology  , 50  , 202-209. Drago, F. (2011). Self-esteem and earnings. Journal of Economic Psychology  , 32  (3), 480-488. Erikson’s Stages of Development | Learning Theories. (n.d.).   Learning Theories . Retrieved  August 13, 2014, from http://www.learning-theories.com/eriksons-stages-of-development.html Goldsmith, A. H., Veum, J. R., & William, D. (1996). The impact of labor force history on self-esteem and its component parts, anxiety, alienation and depression. Journal of Economic Psychology  , 17  (2), 183-220. Kutsenkov, A. A. (1986). The Origin of Caste and the Caste System: Comments on a book by Morton Klass, Caste: The Emergence of the South Asian Social System. Russian Social Science Review  , 27  (3), 55-77. McClure, A. C., Tanski, S. E., Kingsbury, J., Gerrard, M., & Sargent, J. D. (2010). Characteristics Associated With Low Self-Esteem Among US Adolescents.  Academic Pediatrics , 10  (4), 238-244.e2. Soldatova, E., & Shlyapnikova, I. (2013). Ego-identity in the Structure of Personality Maturity. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences , 86  , 283-288.
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