21st Century Educational Apartheid: Differentiating Equity from Diversity in US Public School System

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21st Century Educational Apartheid Differentiating Equity from Diversity in the US Public School SystemA Mellon-Funded Urban Humanities Initiative by Christine…
21st Century Educational Apartheid Differentiating Equity from Diversity in the US Public School SystemA Mellon-Funded Urban Humanities Initiative by Christine DohertyThe Divided City is a joint project of the Center for the Humanities and the College and Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design at Washington University in St. Louis. The goal is to place humanities scholars into productive interdisciplinary dialogue with architects, urban designers, sociologists, and others around one of the most persistent and vexing issues in urban studies: segregation. In the summer of 2017, Christine Doherty was one of nine students chosen to conduct research on urban segregation for the Center for Humanities in partnership with the College and Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design. This book is a compilation of the work completed.Christine Doherty, MArch + MUD 2019 Sam Fox School of Design and Visual Arts Washington University in St. Louis 2017 Graduate Dissertation Research Fellow“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the worldâ€? Nelson Mandelacontentsthe premise project abstract3purpose4three cities6systemic racism segregation in the US9the damage12timeline14patterned consequence16need for change educational desegregation19disparity20program types22the growing issue24closeup school demographics27hartford connecticut28district of columbia32saint louis missouri36conclusions desegregation is not equity41a new system44patterns of engagement46references50the premise Inter-school exchange programs are a temporary solution to the persisting problem that segregated schools are an immediate result of segregated neighborhoods.project abstract Over six decades have passed since the landmark decision Brown vs. Board of Education overruled the doctrine of separate but equal in the realm of public education, but segregated schools remain a fact of the US school system. After Brown, de jure and de facto integration became a priority for many school districts across the US. From 1968 to 1980 alone there was a 67% increase in the average percentage of blacks’ schoolmates who are white in the country overall. Many of these plans for desegregation were intentionally temporary, but as results were analyzed in terms of socio-economic and racial diversity, plans were extended. The National Assessment of Educational Progress report in 2006 proved diverse schools not only lessen the achievement gap between white and black students, but provide a broader range of curriculum and benefit overall school performance. For these results districts continued de jure desegregation and selective schools flourished. Yet a US Government Accountability Office (GAO) study done in 2016 shows in the past two decades both the percentage of K-12 public schools in high-poverty and the percentage comprised of mostly black or Hispanic students grew significantly from 7,009 schools to 15,089 schools, and the percentage of all schools with a racial or socio-economic isolation grew from 9% to 15%.top performing school districts half mile radius1½us ur bhorideWestchester Elementary SchoolCole Elementary School12 / 865 Missouri Elementary Schools 15% Black 12% Free Lunch848 / 865 Missouri Elementary Schools 90% Black 100% Free LunchMany cities, including St. Louis, had a successful run with bus transferring programs between schools and districts, even after a history of racist urban planning. Yet a school transfer program will not fix the apparent segregation still visible in city neighborhoods. 3purpose Despite decades of trial and error of school transfer programs, many school districts continue to search for a perpetual, feasible system for socio-economic and racial diversity in their public schools. Transferring students to achieve these ideals is unsustainable because it devalues communities by removing a valuable resource, nor does it not respond to the issue of residential segregation. This document aims to analyze the spatial and temporal aspects of certain school districts in order to discover the specific dynamics that can be utilized in a sustainable community-based education system. Diversity in schools does not necessarily equate to a balanced or quality education. The purpose of analyzing school de-segregation programs is to give equity to city schools without transferring students. The current education disparity at the college level is a direct and ongoing result of racial inequality manifested through federal public policy and city planning. Prioritizing equal access to education at an early age can break these unfair patterns and introduce equity to American city school systems.City Garden Montessori School in St. LouisPrivate versus Public This report is not a criticism on inter-school and inter-district transfer programs. De jure desegregation has benefited many students across the US, nearly four million according to The Century Foundation. Nor is this report meant to give preference to public schools over private institutions. Every city and school district has its specific dynamics to afford successes, as well as failures, in terms of the quality of education given to all children. Inter-school and inter-district transfer programs offer different strategies which may or may not include a private education. The quality of education between the two varies based on amount of resources, funding, policy makers, and myriad other factors. The cities chosen for this report are based on information given by public school systems and the cities themselves, which are analyzed based on dependent variables. 4the housing issue The primary need for de-segregation stemmed from obvious de facto segregation in city neighborhoods. This report also briefly explains the premise of segregated neighborhoods, which began from racist federal laws and urban policies. Only by understanding the damage in creating a society built on systemic racism can cities answer to their current issues in education. As a regional system, similar to transportation, an equitable and quality system of education cannot be answered without addressing disenfranchised neighborhoods within these cities.HOLC Redlining map of St. Louis demarkating where morgages and other financial assistance was aavailable for home ownership.5three cities The cities of Hartford, District of Columbia, and Saint Louis were chosen for the specific dynamics involved in their de-segregation programs. Similar to many cities across the US, they were victim to racist urban planning which led to the apparent separation today, but the evolution of each city is what caused outcome variations in their school districts.6Hartford CTDistrict of ColumbiaDependencyDisparityThe Greater Hartford School District holds the largest program in the country, based on magnet schools and transfer policies. While successful in many aspects, the program has essentially gotten so large it cannot fold, and therefore maintaining the class disparity between city and suburb.Washington DC has a reputa isolated schools, and its contro further widening the gap betw within a neighborhood.ation for low-quality, raciallyolled school choice program is ween school achievement evenwhite population black population % of bachelor’s degreesSaint Louis MOTenability Saint Louis began an inter-district bus transfer program in the 1980 which has had quite a successful run, but has failed to address the red lining still visible in its neighborhoods. Now that the program is coming to a close, the city needs a practical system for community resilience.7systemic racism Systemic racism is composed of intersecting and codependent racist institutions, policies, practices, and ideas that give an unjust amount of resources, rights, and power to white people while denying them to people of color.segregation in the US Systemic racism is a concept only recently understood but has been a harsh reality for many Americans in the past centuries. While the US Constitution defined all men as "created equal" in 1787, the prolonged legal recognition of racialized slavery was the cornerstone of the racist social system that every American abides by today. Despite the abolition of slavery in 1863, racist practices were already so embedded into social norms that one act of supposed “freedom” could not redeem. As a result, African Americans faced numerous challenges which all led to economic and social inequality. Different from systemic, institutional racism is less overt than individual racism, but has a far greater effect because it impacts regular access to deserved services. In the US, institutional racism can be seen in housing, healthcare, criminal conviction, civil services, political representation, and education. The current undeserved impoverishment and inequality was largely perpetuated by completely unethical racist policies in the twentieth century to separate physically whites from people of color in residential segregation. Redlining was the practice of financial institutions barring residents in predominately minority neighborhoods from financial services such as mortgages, insurance, or any type of moneylending. It also involved the Home Owner’s Loan Corporation (HOLC) drawing a red line around certain areas of a city deemed to be not “credit worthy.” Of course housing discrimination did not begin with the HOLC in the 1930s, but the maps created only legally allowed racial bias. In many instances, they were merely a reflection of discrimination already taking place based on housing quality. Yet because of the HOLC, people of color remained isolated urban environments and unable to invest in property with their white neighbors.first grade second grade third gradeSt. Louis 1937fourth grade91011the damage As a result, many American cities remained segregated for the decades to come. Real estate tactics such as steering, blockbusting, and inflated prices left many, but not all, people of color in isolated neighborhoods for the remains of the twentieth century. In turn, not only were races physically separated by housing, but the relegation of blacks in the US became commonplace in nearly every other institution as well. Neighborhood disinvestment became apparent with the systematic withdraw of capital and neglect of public services by the city. When the city begins to neglect its residents, local businesses also tend to leave the neighborhood to follow the affluent communities. Many city neighborhoods lack of proper amenities like pharmacies, healthy food options, communal spaces, and most importantly, quality education.tenure Without the ability to own property, chances for investment (personal or community) decrease, as homeownership is a proven wealth builder. Redlining was not the only issue barring individuals from a right to prosperity--the G. I. Bill in 1948, which strongly influenced national homeownership trends today, was acquiesced by adamantly blocking non-whites from this new ladder of opportunity. Even come 1968, when redlining was outlawed, the consequences of twentieth century racism proved profound. As Ira Katznelson states in his book, When Affirmative Action was White: “By 1984, when G. I. Bill mortgages had mainly matured, the median white household had a net worth of $39,135; the comparable figure for black households was only $3,397, or just 9 percent of white holdings. Most of this difference was accounted for by the absence of homeownership.â€? household homeownership rates by racewhite hispanic black12conflicting policy For these reasons and more, racial and socio-economic disparity have been considered complementary social issues. While Martin Luther King Jr. is notable for the Civil Rights Act in 1964 as an instigator to social justice in many forms, myriad challenges presented themselves in the remaining decades of the century. In fact, much of the twentieth century was series of conflicting policies and acts in regards to social justice, ranging from racial covenants to anti-affirmative action processes. As a result, the differentiation between de jure and de facto segregation or integration was first introduced, despite the end of all legally enforced segregation in the 1960s. But already were blacks limited to urban centers, and without similar economic opportunities, the black urban underclass was created. As Douglass Massey summarizes in his book American Apartheid, a lack of spatial mobility leads to a lack of social mobility, and as such, the economic success of blacks (and other minorities for that matter) in the United States never equaled that of whites. As far as education, national studies in the 1970s proved minority students in concentrated poverty schools had lower achievement rates and less access to the resources their white, suburban counterparts had. While segregation was officially illegal, this decade brought the first call to action to bring equity to city schools, beginning with diversity.median household income by racewhite hispanic black13timeline comparisonthe good Buchanan v. WarleyBrown v. Board of EducatioKentucky residential segregation was unconstitutional but ruling was on property rights.Separate public schools for wh and black children is ruled unc stitutional.Shelley v. Kraemer Courts cannot enforce racial covenants on real estate.Civil Rights of 1964Discrimination based on race, color, religion or sex is outlawed18961934 191719481954Housing Act of 1934 Plessy v. Ferguson US Supreme Court case that upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of “separate but equal.” Jim Crow Lawsthe bad14Home Owner’s Loan Corporation introduced mortgage discrimination and redlining minority neighborhoods.G. I. Bill A law that provides a range of benefits to WWII veterans yet was interpreted differently for any non-white who tried to access these resources.Swann vs. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Educationonhite con-Green vs. New Kent County School Board Supreme Court identifies factors to mandate public school’s compliance with Brown.Court approves busing, magnet schools, and other tools as appropriate remedies to overcome the role of residential segregationSchool Integration reaches all-time highRiddick v. School Board of the City of Norfolk4About 45% of black children are in majoritywhite schools.Once a school district meets Green standards, it can be released to local control.d n, d.1974 196819711978 19861988Milikin vs. Bradley Stopped busing unless there were deliberate attempts to re-segregate.Nixon’s Fair Housing Policy Undermined HUD’s attempts at equal opportunity housing, stating that “forced integration of housing is just as wrong as segregation.”University of California v. Baak Ruled that a white student had been discriminated against because of too much affirmative action.15patterned consequence Poverty Rate white population%25black population asian population hispanic population%10%32%1060% | 40%82% |18%54% |46%79% |21%below basic performanceStudent Achievement Rate16Median Net Worth excluding equity in own home$110,500$6,314$89,339$7,683usa race ratiomother|father43.0% | 43.7%22.4% | 30.5%52.3% | 56.5%14.1% | 14.2% Parents with Bachelor Degrees17a need for change Double Segregation: an overlapping phenomena of socioeconomic and racial segregation as the result of sequestering minorities together and purposefully limiting their social mobility.educational desegregation After Brown v, Board of Education declared racial segregation in public schools as unconstitutional, the process of integrating schools was met with plenty of resistance. The decision was an attempt to rectify the relationship between racism and the life chances of black children, but gave no specific direction on how to do so. In ruling that school segregation was inherently unequal, the Warren court actually condemned the cause of school inequality: racism. Segregation purposefully reinforced white over-representation in institutions as varied as city councils and corporate boardrooms, but simply replacing white members with their black counterparts does not give justice. By 1960, 43% of black families lived in poverty, only two of five blacks earned high school diplomas, and a black college graduate earned less than a white person with eight years of education. The 1954 decision eventually became a referendum on the ideological underpinnings and fortitude of American racism, and gave rise to an unparalleled exodus--white flight. Through the rise of suburbia and the persistent impoverishment of urban education, school districts across the US saw a need to consistently desegregate their public schools. In the past six decades, school districts have created integration policies that typically addressed de jure segregation, but not de facto segregation. Currently, the school districts and charters employing racial and socioeconomic integration efforts are located in nearly every state. The states with the greatest number of districts and charters are in California, Florida, North Carolina, New York, and Minnesota. Correspondingly, these same states also hold some of the country's most segregated cities. The strategies each district uses varies based on policy and context, but the majority fall into five main categories. The success and development of each strategy is dependent on these variables.detroit income under $50,000 1%90%detroit racial segregation white populationblack populationDetroit, Michigan has notoriously been the country's most racially divided city for decades. Not coincidentally, Detroit is also one of the most economically segregated cities and in apparent need to de-segregate its education system. 19racial and economic disparity Racial segregation is the physical separation based on race in a city, whether it be by individual preference or the regulated impact of urban policy decades before. Economic segregation refers to the degree to which people in different social classes live mostly among other people of their class. Greater economic disparity occurs in larger cities, mostly because people in a higher income bracket live outside the city limits. While not always overlapping, both issues play a role in the education system.San Francisco CASan Jose CA20% white population % black population racial segregation economic segregation2 |Chicago IL1 |Detroit MI5|Cleveland OH6 |Buffalo NYBridgeport CTIndianapolis IN7 |Baltimore MDKansas City MO8 |St. Louis MO4 |Memphis TN Charlotte NC3 |Jackson MS21program types While efforts to address racial and socioeconomic segregation have typically been began shortly after Brown vs. Board of Education, the US public school system of 2017 is facing the same issues as the education system fifty years ago. Because of double segregation, many school districts are isolated in their entirety, with high levels of poverty and racial homogeneity. Just by balancing enrollment will still leave schools with low levels of racial diversity and high levels of poverty. Creating racially diverse, economically mixed schools in these districts typically requires using inter-district enrollment strategies or focusing integration efforts on particular neighborhoods or schools with the greatest potential for reaching diversity goals.attendance zone boundaries Re-drawing attendance zone boundaries has become the most common method of socioeconomic and racial diversity because it most easily fits with existing enrollment protocols. This strategy also has the potential to affect all schools in the district—particularly if a school board adopts a resolution to make socioeconomic balance a consideration in all redistricting decisions moving forward. However, the major limitation is the need to constantly re-examine the districts in terms of ideal diversity. School boundaries usually need to
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