Novel Production of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Protein Based on Combined Replacement of Fish Meal and Fish Oil With Plant Meal and Vegetable Oil Blends

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Aquaculture 285 (2008) 193–200 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Aquaculture j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / a q u a - o n l i n e Novel production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein based on combined replacement of fish meal and fish oil with plant meal and vegetable oil blends B.E. Torstensen a,⁎, M. Espe a, M. Sanden a, I. Stubhaug a, R. Waagbø a, G.-I. Hemre a, R. Fontanillas c, U. Nordgarden b, E.M. Hevrøy a, P. Olsvik a, M.H.G. B
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  Cavdj r{alti|hac af O|joc|hi yojeac  Yojea yojo{  ( r{a|dhc koydl ac iaekhcdl{drjoidedc| af  ﬏ yg edoj ocl ﬏ yg ahj ph|g rjoc| edoj ocl vd`d|okjd ahj kjdcly K#D# \a{y|dcydc o* ⁃ * E# Dyrd o *E# Yocldc o *H# Y|tkgot` o * [# Poo`k÷ o * @#%H# Gde{d o * [# Fac|ochjjoy i *T# Ca{l`o{ldc k * D#E# Gdv{÷x o * R# Ajyvhm o * E#G#@# Kd{c|yydc o o Co|hacoj Hcy|h|t|d af Ct|{h|hac ocl Ydofaal [dydo{ig* CHFDY* Kd{`dc* Ca{pox k Eo{hcd [dydo{ig Hcy|h|t|d* Eo|{dloj* Ca{pox i Ym{d||hc` Oqtoitj|t{d [dydo{ig Idc|{d 'O[I(* R#A# Kaw <7* <22?* Y|ovoc`d{* Ca{pox o k y | { o i |o { | h i j d h c f a  O{|hijd ghy|a{x> [didhvdl 9 Ntjx ;227[didhvdl hc {dvhydl fa{e ?8 Ot`ty| ;227Oiidr|dl ;? Ot`ty| ;227 Mdxpa{ly> Vd`d|okjd ahjRjoc| r{a|dhcFhyg edojFhyg ahj@{ap|gCt|{hdc| t|hjhyo|hacCt|{hdc| lh`dy|hkhjh|x \gd ohe af |gd r{dydc| y|tlx poy |a iaekhcd eowhete {drjoidedc| af  ﬏ yg edoj ocl ﬏ yg ahj ph|g rjoc|hc`{dlhdc|yhcfddlfa{O|joc|hiyojeac*hca{ld{|a`ohcoyatcloclyty|ohcokjdcd| ﬏ ygr{a|dhcr{alti|hac#\gdldyh`c herjhdl |go| ojj mcapc ct|{hdc| {dqth{dedc|y ygatjl kd ed|# O|joc|hi yojeac yeaj|y ph|g oc hch|hojpdh`g|af2#9m`pd{dfdlhc|{hrjhio|ddh|gd{oftjjxeo{hcdiac|{ajlhd|a{acdaf|g{ddrjoc|koydllhd|y|g{at`g|gd ydopo|d{ r{alti|hac rgoyd fa{ ?; eac|gy* tc|hj ﬏ coj pdh`g| af orr{awheo|djx < m`# Hc o eowhete rjoc|koydl lhd|* 72$ af |gd ﬏ yg edoj poy {drjoidl ph|g o ehw|t{d af rjoc| r{a|dhc hc`{dlhdc|y ocl m{hjj edoj* pghjd02$ |gd ﬏ yg ahj poy {drjoidl ph|g o ehw|t{d af vd`d|okjd ahjy# \pa hc|d{edlho|d {drjoidedc| lhd|y iac|ohcdldh|gd{acdgojf af |ghy ﬏ ygedoj{drjoidedc|jdvdjocleowhete ﬏ ygahj{drjoidedc|*a{acdgojf{drjoidedc|jdvdj af  ﬏ yg ahj ocl eowhete ﬏ yg edoj {drjoidedc|# Fhyg rd{fa{eocid poy oyydyydl kx edoyt{hc` ea{|ojh|x*fddl hc|omd*`{ap|g* ct|{hdc| lh`dy|hkhjh|xocl ct|{hdc| t|hjhyo|hac# Yrdih ﬏ i `{ap|g{o|dpoy yh`ch ﬏ ioc|jxjapd{hc |gd iaekhcdl gh`g {drjoidedc| `{atr iaero{dl |a |gd a|gd{ dwrd{hedc|oj `{atry* ka|g fa{ |gd ﬏ {y| 9%eac|g rd{hal ?;$( ocl fa{ |gd iaerjd|d ?; eac|gy 8$( af fddlhc`# \gd ﬏ coj ﬏ yg pdh`g|y pd{d ?0$ japd{ hc|gd iaekhcdl gh`g {drjoidedc| `{atr ocl 8$ japd{ hc |gd gh`g rjoc| r{a|dhc ocl hc|d{edlho|d vd`d|okjd ahj`{atr* iaero{dl |a |gd eo{hcd iac|{aj ocl |gd hc|d{edlho|d rjoc| r{a|dhc `{atr# Yh`ch ﬏ ioc|jx {dltidl fddlhc|omd lt{hc` |gd ﬏ {y| rd{hal ocl yjh`g|jx {dltidl lh`dy|hkhjh|x af ?6>2 ocl y|o{ig pd{d hldc|h ﬏ dl oy rayyhkjdiotydyfa{`{ap|gldr{dyyhac*yhcidehca{lhffd{dcidyhcr{a|dhca{jhrhllh`dy|hkhjh|x*fddliacvd{yhac{o|ha*oclr{a|dhc ocl jhrhl {d|dc|hac pd{d akyd{vdl#\gdeowhete ﬏ ygedojocl ﬏ ygahj{drjoidedc|{dr{dydc|dlocd|r{alti|hacaf  ﬏ ygr{a|dhc*ph|g;m`yojeacr{a|dhcr{altidl rd{m` ﬏ ygedoj r{a|dhcfdl#\ghy kdhc`fat{%fajl ea{ddf  ﬏ ihdc| tyo`daf  ﬏ ygedoj hc |gd 72$rjoc| r{a|dhc lhd|y iaero{dl |a |gd ?22$ ﬏ yg {op eo|d{hoj lhd|#¨ ;227 Djydvhd{ K#V# Ojj {h`g|y {dyd{vdl# ?# Hc|{alti|hac Fo{edl O|joc|hi yojeac govd |{olh|hacojjx kddc fdl lhd|yiac|ohchc`jo{`doeatc|yaf  ﬏ ygahjocl ﬏ ygedoj#\gdy|dolxhci{doydhcr{alti|hacvajtedhcoqtoitj|t{daf7 ’ ?2$oxdo{\oiac*;22<=\oiacd|oj#*;226(*goy {dytj|dl hc hci{doyhc` tyd af oj|d{co|hvd r{a|dhcy ocl ahjy hc oqtofddly#Yty|ohcokjd ﬏ ygfo{ehc`hcijtldy|gdtydaflhd|yfa{etjo|dltyhc`diacaehioj* yth|okjd ocl d|ghioj oiidr|okjd fddl hc`{dlhdc|y# \gd tyd af  ﬏ ygedojoclahj*{dr{dydc|hc`9 ’ 4m`f{dyg ﬏ ygrd{m`fo{edl ﬏ yggovdkddc i{h|hihydl ka|g fa{ dwrjah|o|hac af |gd `jakoj ﬏ ygd{x {dyat{idy ocl|gdehytydafgh`gqtojh|xeo{hcdr{a|dhcocljhrhlyat{idy|go|iatjlkdlh{di|jxtydlfa{gteociacyter|hac#Hc|ghy{dyrdi|*vd`d|okjdahjyVA(govd kddc r{araydl oy yty|ohcokjd oj|d{co|hvdy |a ﬏ yg ahj \a{y|dcydcd|oj#*;224(#VAyo{dgapdvd{ldvahlaf  c ∛ 9RTFOyDRO*LROoclLGO(pghjd |gd jdvdjy af ?7>; c ∛ 6 ocl eacadcd fo||x oihly o{d tytojjx gh`g*{dytj|hc` hc jap lhd|o{x c ∛ 9! c ∛ 6 {o|hay# Jhmdphyd* yty|ohcokjd oj|d{%co|hvdy|a ﬏ ygedojgovdhcijtldlvo{hatyrjoc|r{a|dhcyat{idy*ytigoyvd`d|okjdedojyph|gi{tldr{a|dhciac|dc|af;2|a42$Gd{|{oerfoclRhdlol%Royitoj* ;222(# Gapdvd{* |gd hclhyrdcyokjd oehca oihl HOO(r{a ﬏ jd hc rjoc| r{a|dhcy lhffd{y f{ae ﬏ yg edoj# Ydcyhkjd kjdclhc` af lhffd{dc| r{a|dhc yat{idy o{d cdidyyo{x |a kojocid |gd HOO iaerayh|hac*pghjdjapjdvdjyafid{|ohci{xy|ojjhcdOOyeoxgovd|akdolldl|aftj ﬏ jOO {dqth{dedc|y C[I*?889=Gojvd{ocl Go{lx* ;22;(#Pgdc hcijtlhc`rjoc|r{a|dhcyat{idy*|gdio{kagxl{o|df{oi|hacoypdjjoyoc|hct|{hdc|y Oqtoitj|t{d ;74 ;227( ?89 ’ ;22  Okk{dvho|hacy> FE* ﬏ yg edoj= FA* ﬏ yg ahj= VA* vd`d|okjd ahj= RR* rjoc| r{a|dhc= HOO*hclhyrdcyokjd oehca oihly= RRV* r{a|dhc r{alti|hvd vojtd= JRV* jhrhl r{alti|hvd vojtd=IF* iaclh|hac foi|a{= FI[* fddl iacvd{yhac {o|ha= Y@[* yrdih ﬏ i `{ap|g {o|d= RD[* r{a|dhcdf  ﬏ ihdcix {o|ha= JD[* jhrhl df  ﬏ ihdcix {o|ha= DRV* dcd{`x r{alti|hvd vojtd= OLI* orro{dc|lh`dy|hkhjh|x iadf  ﬏ ihdc|# ⁃ Ia{{dyraclhc` ot|ga{# R#A# Kaw ;2;8* Y|{ocl`| ;;8* 47?0 Kd{`dc* Ca{pox# \dj#> -<044824;22= fow> -<0 44824;88# D%eohj oll{dyy> kdc|d#|a{y|dcydcBchfdy#caK#D# \a{y|dcydc(#22<<%7<76!, ’ ydd f{ac| eo||d{ ¨ ;227 Djydvhd{ K#V# Ojj {h`g|y {dyd{vdl#lah>?2#?2?6!n#oqtoitj|t{d#;227#27#2;4 Iac|dc|y jhy|y ovohjokjd o|YihdcidLh{di| Oqtoitj|t{d  nat{coj gaedro`d> ppp#djydvhd{#iae!jaio|d!oqto%acjhcd  eox oj|d{ lh`dy|hac ocl ct|{hdc| t|hjhyo|hac F{ocihy d| oj#* ;22?=M{a`logj d| oj#* ;224(#Ydvd{oj y|tlhdy govd {dra{|dl ca `{ap|g {dlti|hac pgdc |gd jhrhlf{ae ﬏ ygahjypd{diaerjd|djx{drjoidlkxydjdi|dlyhc`jda{ehwdlVAyhclhd|yfa{O|joc|hiyojeac*jdovhc`|gd ﬏ ygedojjhrhl72 ’ ?22`m` ∛ ? (oy|gd acjx yat{id af  c ∛ 9 RTFOPoo`k÷ d| oj#* ?88?= \a{y|dcydc d| oj#*;222* ;22<* ;224= Kdjj d| oj#* ;22?* ;22;(# Hc foi|* ka|g `{ap|g oclr{a|dhct|hjhyo|hacpd{dyh`ch ﬏ ioc|jxher{avdlhcO|joc|hiyojeacpgdcfdl VA lhd|y o| jap 6 ²I( po|d{ |derd{o|t{dy \a{y|dcydc d| oj#* ;224(#Orro{dc| lh`dy|hkhjh|x af r{a|dhc* jhrhl ocl fo||x oihly pd{d gh`gjxhc ﬋ tdcidlkxdcvh{acedc|oj|derd{o|t{d*ph|gjdyyyo|t{o|dloclea{dtcyo|t{o|dl fo||x oihly govhc` o rayh|hvd dffdi| ac lh`dy|hkhjh|x o| japd{po|d{ |derd{o|t{dy \a{y|dcydc d| oj#* ;222= Iokojjd{a d| oj#* ;22;=Kdclhmydc d| oj#* ;229= Edcaxa d| oj#* ;229= C` d| oj#* ;22<(#O jo{`d kalx af jh|d{o|t{d r{dydc|y y|tlhdy ac oj|d{co|hvd r{a|dhcyat{idy |a ﬏ yg edoj hc fddly fa{ yojeachly* ka|g kx tyhc` kjdcly af rjoc|r{a|dhcyph|ga{ph|gat|oehcaoihlytrrjdedc|o|hac*oypdjjoy|a|oj{drjoidedc|af  ﬏ ygedoj@aedyd|oj#*?884=Motyghmd|oj#*?884=ld F{ocidyia d| oj#* ;22<= Dyrd d| oj#* ;226(# Hci{doydl {drjoidedc| af  ﬏ yg edoj kx rjoc| r{a|dhcy hc lhd|y fa{ yojeachly goy {dytj|dl hc{dltidl `{ap|g rd{fa{eocid* gapdvd{|ghy poy kdjhdvdl |akd iotydlkx {dltidl fddl hc|omd ocl heroi| ac `t| hc|d`{h|x* pghjd orro{dc|r{a|dhc ocl oehca oihl lh`dy|hkhjh|hdy pd{d tcoffdi|dl Motyghm d| oj#*;22<= Dyrd d| oj#* ;226(# Hc |gdyd y|tlhdy jhrhl {d|dc|hac hci{doydl hc{ohckap |{at| Motyghm d| oj#* ;22<( kt| ldi{doydl hc O|joc|hi yojeacDyrd d| oj#* ;226( o| gh`g rjoc| r{a|dhc hcijtyhacy#\gd it{{dc|dwrd{hedc|poy ldyh`cdl |a eowhehyd |gd {drjoidedc|af  ﬏ yg edoj ocl ahj ph|g rjoc| hc`{dlhdc|y hc fddly fa{ O|joc|hi yojeac`{apd{y* koydl ac {didc| mcapjdl`d `ohcdl f{ae {dydo{ig faitydl acr{a|dhc d#`# DT%r{andi| RDRRO _4[Y%I\%;222%92267=Motyghm d| oj#*;22<= Dyrd d| oj#* ;226( ocl jhrhl {drjoidedc|y d#`# DT%r{andi| [OFAO_4[Y%;222%92247=Kdjj d| oj#* ;22;* ;229o*k= \a{y|dcydc d| oj#* ;22<*;224(#\gdr{dydc|faitypoy|aiaekhcdeowhete{drjoidedc|af  ﬏ ygedoj r{a|dhc ocl ﬏ yg ahj ph|g rjoc| hc`{dlhdc|y hc lhd|y fdl |g{at`gat||gd eona{ r{alti|hac rgoyd hc ydo* hc a{ld{ |a `ohc o yatcl oclyty|ohcokjd cd| r{alti|hac af  ﬏ ygfa{gteociacyter|hac#Fddl hc|omd*lh`dy|hkhjh|x* ct|{hdc| {d|dc|hac ocl `{ap|g pd{d oyydyydl hc fat{yoerjhc`y lt{hc` |gd ?; eac|g dwrd{hedc|oj r{alti|hac rd{hal f{aeyeaj| |a yjot`g|d{ yh~d# \ghy rord{ hy |gd ﬏ {y| hc o yd{hdy af rtkjhio|hacyf{ae |gd it{{dc| HR%DT r{andi| ‚ O_TOEOW ― 2?6;<8%;( |go| dvojto|dy|gd iacydqtdcidaf |gd iaekhcdl {drjoidedc| af  ﬏ ygedojocl ﬏ ygahj#Ft{|gd{iaeetchio|hacyphjjfaityaced|okajhioyrdi|y* ﬏ yggdoj|goclpdjfo{d* oy pdjj oy ﬏ jjd| qtojh|x# ;# Eo|d{hoj ocl ed|galy  ;#?# Fddlhc` |{hoj \gd fddlhc` |{hojpoyio{{hdl at| o||gd Hcy|h|t|d af Eo{hcd[dydo{ig*Eo|{d Eo|{dloj* Ca{pox= 62²4; ※ C* 24²94 ※ D( lt{hc` |gd rd{hal af Ntcd;;cl ;226 ’  Ntcd ?4|g ;220# \gd O|joc|hi yojeac  Yojea yojo{  ( pd{dak|ohcdl f{ae Omvo@dc O!Y \hc`vajj* Ca{pox(# Hc Ntcd ;226 orr{awh%eo|djx 6222 yeaj|y ph|g o edocpdh`g| af 944¿8; ` pd{d lhy|{hkt|dldqtojjxhc|a?; ’ ?2e 9 hclaa{ ﬏ k{d`joyy|ocmyiac|ohchc`0e 9 ydopo|d{*ph|g o iac|hctaty ﬋ ap%|g{at`g s4; J ehc ∛ ? 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( f{ae o lddrpo|d{ hcjd| 72 e lddr* Eo|{dfna{ldc(#\derd{o|t{d poy mdr| iacy|oc| o| 7#8¿2#? ²I* ph|g iac|hctatyjx{dia{lhc` ocl ot|aeo|hi {d`tjo|hac# Awx`dc poy ojya ot|aeo|hiojjx{dia{ldlhc|gdat|jd|po|d{oclpoycdvd{jdyy|goc72$yo|t{o|hac#\gd ﬏ yg pd{d oiijheo|dl |a |gd dwrd{hedc|oj iaclh|hacy fa{ ;#4 pddmykdfa{d kdhc` fdl |gd dwrd{hedc|oj lhd|y ac |gd ;;cl af Ntcd# Fhyg hc 9{oclaehydl |ocmy pd{d fdl? af |gd < lhffd{dc|dw|{tldllhd|y= ?(o lhd|ph|geowhetehcijtyhacaf  ﬏ ygedojFE(ocl ﬏ ygahjFA(FEFA(*;(olhd|ph|gocdy|heo|dlyofdeowhete{drjoidedc|afka|g ﬏ ygedojocl ﬏ ygahjph|grjoc|edoj72$RR(oclvd`d|okjdahj02$VA(72RR02VA(*9( o lhd| ph|g acd gojf |gd eowhete {drjoidedc| ph|g rjoc| edoj ocleowhete {drjoidedc| ph|g vd`d|okjd ahj <2RR02VA(* ocl <( o lhd|ph|g eowhete {drjoidedc| ph|g rjoc| edoj ocl acd gojf |gdeowhete {drjoidedc| af vd`d|okjd ahj 72RR94VA(# Lhd|y pd{dr{altidl kx Ym{d||hc` O[I Y|ovoc`d{* Ca{pox(# \gd fat{ dwrd{hedc|ojlhd|ypd{dfdl|g{at`gat|ocdc|h{dydopo|d{r{alti|hacrgoyd*ph|gojjlhd|y igoc`hc` hc rdjjd| yh~d ocl jhrhl iac|dc| of|d{ o |g{dd eac|gfddlhc`rd{hal\okjd?(#Lhd|yph|grdjjd|yh~d<eepd{dfdlf{aeNtcd|a;2|gYdr|dekd{;226*oclf{ae;2|gYdr|dekd{|aNtcd;220|gd ﬏ yg  \okjd ? Fddl iaerayh|hac ` m` ∛ ? (* r{awheo|d iaerayh|hac ` ?22 ` ∛ ? * p#p#(* ocl dcd{`x mN ` ∛ ? ( af |pa rdjjd| yh~dy af |gd fat{ dwrd{hedc|oj lhd|yRdjjd| yh~d < ee 6 eeFEFA 72RR94VA <2RR02VA 72RR02VA FEFA 72RR94VA <2RR02VA 72RR02VA Hc`{dlhdc| ocl r{awheo|d iaerayh|hac Pgdo| Y|o|ma{c* Ca{pox( ?;0 ??2 ?2< ??? ?40 ?;9 ?;0 ?;<Pgdo| `jt|dc Id{dy|o{ Yioclhcovho OY* Ldceo{m( ’ ?42 86 ?42 ’ ?42 82 ?42Ia{c `jt|dc Io{`hjj* TYO( ’ ?42 ?42 ?42 ’ ?42 ?42 ?42Yaxkdoc edoj dw|{oi|dl Ldcafo* Ca{pox( ’ ?92 42 ?92 ’ ??2 ?< ??2M{hjj edoj Omd{ Ydofaaly Oc|o{|hi OYO *Ca{pox( ’ 42 ;4 42 ’ 42 ;4 42J\ Yat|g Oed{hioc Iacya{|ha* Rd{t( 6;2 ?;2 922 ?;2 462 ?;2 922 ?;2Jhcyddl ahj Djkd Fd||gocldj @ekG* @d{eocx( ’ ?0 92 92 ’ ?7 96 96Roje ahj Ldcafo* Ca{pox( ’ 99 62 62 ’ 9; 6? 6?[ordyddl ahj Deedjdv OY* Ldceo{m( ’ 6? ??2 ??2 ’ 46 ??2 ??2Fhyg ahj Ca{lhi Ca{lyhjledj* Ca{pox( ;42 ?62 64 02 ;72 ?77 7< 76 J  %jxyhcd Onhcaea|a Dt{ard Y#O#Y#* F{ocid( ’ ?9 6 ?9 ’ ’ ’ ’ Ghy|hlhcd%GIj Mxapo Gomma Ma`xa Ia#* J|l* Noroc( ’ ? ’ ? ’ ’ ’ ’ LJ  %ed|ghachcd Olhyyda* F{ocid( ’ ? ’ ? ’ ’ ’ ’ Vh|oehcy ocl ehcd{ojy o 9 < < < 9 9 9 9 R{awheo|d iaerayh|hac '` m`  ∛ ? ( I{tld fo| ;76 ;7? ;76 ;7? 9<9 9?7 998 9;7I{tld r{a|dhc <9? <<; <99 <<; <;; <;< <?; <;6Oyg ?27 47#; 0;#< 47#< 60#; 4<#< 64 4<#4Y|o{ig 74#0 80#< 80#< ?2? 8?#; 77#< 72#0 76#6L{x eo||d{ 8;7 898 89; 8<9 8;9 8;4 8;< 89;[dy| af l{x eo||d{ ?0#9 62#< <9#; 62#6 2#< <2#; ;0#9 96#8Dcd{`x mN ` ∛ ? ( ;97 ;<8 ;<4 ;<7 ;4? ;4< ;4< ;49FEFA> ?22$ ﬏ yg edoj ocl ?22$ ﬏ yg ahj* 72RR94VA> 72$ rjoc| r{a|dhc ocl 94$ vd`d|okjd ahj kjdcl= <2RR02VA> <2$ rjoc| r{a|dhc ocl 02$ vd`d|okjd ahj kjdcl* 72RR02VA> 72$ rjoc|r{a|dhc ocl 02$ vd`d|okjd ahj kjdcl# o Vh|oehc ocl ehcd{oj ytrrjdedc|o|hac hy dy|heo|dl |a iavd{ {dqth{dedc|y oiia{lhc`C[I ?889(#?8< K#D# \a{y|dcydc d| oj# ! Oqtoitj|t{d ;74 ';227( ?89 ’  ;22  pd{d fdl 6 ee lhd|y# \gd fddl ko|igdy af ojj fat{ j lhd|y tydl f{aeCavdekd{;226tc|hjFdk{to{x;220hcijtldlx||{hteawhld?`m` ∛ ? (hca{ld{ |a oyydyy lh`dy|hkhjh|x ehlpox hc |gd dwrd{hedc| Ldi ;226(#Iordjhc ahj Fhyg ahj Ca{lhi* Ca{lyhjledj* Ca{pox( poy tydl oy |gd eohcyat{idfa{jac`igohcgh`gjxtcyo|t{o|dl c ∛ 9rajxtcyo|t{o|dlfo||xoihlyGTFO(#Oehw|t{daf{ordyddl*roje*ocljhcyddlahj44!92!?4*v!v!v(poytydl oy {drjoidedc| fa{ ﬏ yg ahj \okjd ?(# \gd ehw|t{d poy ydjdi|dl |aak|ohc o jhrhl r{a ﬏ jd af yo|t{o|dl* eacatcyo|t{o|dl ocl c ∛ 9 RTFO oyyhehjo{ oy rayyhkjd |a iordjhc ahj \a{y|dcydc d| oj#* ;224(#Oy {drjoidedc| fa{ ﬏ yg edoj* o ehw|t{d af ia{c `jt|dc* pgdo|`jt|dc* ocl yax iacidc|{o|d* ocl m{hjj edoj pd{d tydl \okjd ?(# Oehca{  k 42 ` m` ∛ ? ( hcijtyhac af m{hjj edoj Omd{ Ydofaaly Oc|o{|hiOYO *Ca{pox( poy olldl |a |gd {drjoidedc| lhd|y* ph|g |gd ohe |aher{avd |gd rojo|okhjh|x ocl |gty fddl hc|omd @okd{* ;224= Ajydcd| oj#* ;226(# Ojj lhd|y pd{d fa{etjo|dl |a edd| ct|{hdc|{dqth{dedc|y af  ﬏ yg oiia{lhc` |aC[I ?889({diaeedclo|hacy#Of|d{ 2* 9* 4* 7* ocl ?; eac|gy ﬏ yg pd{d pdh`gdl* ocl |gd oeatc|af fddl fdl poy olnty|dl hc oiia{locid ph|g khaeoyy# Fhyg pd{d{do{dl tcld{ o co|t{oj jh`g| {d`hed tc|hj Ai|akd{ ;226 pgdc o?2 g jh`g|> ?< g lo{m {d`hed poy eohc|ohcdl |g{at`gat| |gdphc|d{ tc|hj Eo{ig ;220* of|d{ pghig |gd ﬏ yg {d|t{cdl |a |gdco|t{oj jh`g| {d`hed# F{ae Ntcd ;226 tc|hj Fdk{to{x ;220* |gd fddliacyter|hac rd{ |ocm poy {dia{ldl lohjx# Fhyg pd{d fdl hc dwidyy|phid o lox ph|g ot|aeo|hi fddld{y fa{ 2#4 g* fajjapdl kx fddliajjdi|hac 2#4 g of|d{ doig fddlhc`#Yoerjdyafdoigdwrd{hedc|ojlhd|ocl|gdahjocledojhc`{dlhdc|ytydlhc|gdfddlyfa{doigfddlr{alti|hacko|igpd{dy|a{dlo| ∛ ;2²I#Fhyg yoerjdl fa{ pgajd kalx r{awheo|d iaerayh|hac pd{d tcfdl; loxy r{ha{ |a yoerjhc`# Fhyg f{ae doig |ocm pd{d ocdy|gd|hydl ph|gkdc~aiohc 0 ` J  ∛ ? ( ocl mhjjdl kx o kjap |a |gd gdol# Hclhvhltojpdh`ghc` af o| jdoy| 92$ af |gd khaeoyy rd{ |ocm ocl yoerjhc` af  ﬏ ygfa{ pgajd kalx ocojxyhy 6 raajdl ﬏ yg rd{ |ocm( pd{d rd{fa{edl hc Ntcd ;226 Y|o{|(* Ydr|dekd{ ;226  \  59 eac|gy(* Cavdekd{ ;226 \  54 eac|gy(* Fdk{to{x ;220  \  57 eac|gy(* ocl Ntcd ;220 \  5?; eac|gy(# Lt{hc` |gd Ldidekd{ yoerjhc` fodidy yoerjdy pd{diajjdi|dl kx y|{hrrhc` af 92 ﬏ yg rd{ |ocm fa{ lh`dy|hkhjh|x ocojxydy#  ;#;# Igdehioj ocojxyhy Ojjigdehiojocojxydypd{d{tchcltrjhio|d#Ch|{a`dcpoyld|d{ehcdlof|d{|a|ojiaekty|hactyhc`oCh|{a`dc%Ocojxyd{Rd{mhcDjed{*;<?2Yd{#HH*Ca{pojm*I\*TYO(*ocli{tldr{a|dhciac|dc|iojitjo|dloyytehc`|go|r{a|dhcy iac|ohc ?6$ C# Lhd|o{xocl fodioj jhrhl iac|dc| poy ld|d{ehcdl`{ovhed|{hiojjxoy|gdyteaff{ddoclkatclfo|#F{dda{jaaydjxkatclfo|poy dw|{oi|dl ph|g rd|{ajdte d|gd{ ocl l{hdl o| ?29¿? ²I# \gd yoerjdypd{d|gd{dof|d{gxl{ajxydlph|gGIjhco\dio|a{Yaw|diGxl{ajxyhc`tch||a {djdoyd |gd katcl fo|* pghig poy dw|{oi|dl ph|g rd|{ajdte d|gd{ ocll{hdl o| ?29¿? ²I# L{x pdh`g| ocl oyg iac|dc| poy ld|d{ehcdl`{ovhed|{hiojjx of|d{ f{dd~d%l{xhc` |gd yoerjdy ocl l{hdl |a iacy|oc|pdh`g| hc oc avdc o| 442 ²I* {dyrdi|hvdjx# @{ayy dcd{`x poy ocojxydl kx|gd tyd af oc olhoko|hi kaek ioja{hed|d{ HMO Joka{|dmchm* Ypdldc(#X||{hte poy ld|d{ehcdl hc fddl ocl fodidy kx HIR%EY O`hjdc| 0422* Noroc(# Lhd|o{xocl fodioj oehca oihl iaerayh|hacpoy ld|d{ehcdl of|d{kdhc`gxl{ajxydlhc6CGIjo|??2²Ifa{;;goclr{d%ld{hvo|hyo|hacph|grgdcxjhya|ghaixoco|d RH\IG £ ( oy ldyi{hkdl kxIagdc ocl Y|{xlae?877(#Lhd|o{x |{xr|argoc poy ld|d{ehcdl of|d{ koyhi gxl{ajxydy hc KoAG( ; fa{ ;2 g o| ??2 ²I tyhc` GRJI Ytrdjiayhj JI%?7 iajtec( oyr{dvhatyjxldyi{hkdlJhoyd|d|oj#*;229(#\gdixy|dhcdiac|dc|hcfddlpoyrd{fa{edl kx |gd Ca{pd`hoc Hcy|h|t|d af Fhygd{hdy ocl Oqtoitj|t{d[dydo{ig Kd{`dc* Ca{pox(# Y|o{ig hc gaea`dch~dl yoerjdy af fddl oclfodidy poy ld|d{ehcdl oy r{dvhatyjx ldyi{hkdl kxGde{d d| oj# ?878(#  ;#9# Jhrhl dw|{oi|hac ocl fo||x oihl ocojxyhy \a|oj jhrhl poy dw|{oi|dl f{ae lhd|y ocl fodidy kx gaea`dch~o|hachc igja{afa{e!ed|gocaj ;>?* v!v( ph|g ?8>2 ed|gxj dy|d{ oy hc|d{cojy|oclo{l* koyhiojjx oiia{lhc` |aFajig d| oj# ?840(# Fo||x oihl ed|gxjdy|d{y FOED( pd{d r{dro{dl f{ae |a|oj jhrhl kx ka{ac |{h ﬋ ta{hldfajjaphc` yorach ﬏ io|hac* dyydc|hojjx oy ldyi{hkdl r{dvhatyjx Jhd oclJoekd{|ydc* ?88?= \a{y|dcydc d| oj#* ;22<(# O \gd{ea Fhccd`oc \{oid;222 @I dqthrrdl ph|g o ftydl yhjhio iorhjjo{x iajtec poy tydl IR%yhj 77= 42 eÐ2#9; ee hl#= Ig{aerom J|l#( ph|g |derd{o|t{dr{a`{oeehc` af 62 ²I fa{ ? ehc* ?62 ²I fa{ ;7 ehc* ?82 ²I fa{?0 ehc* ocl ﬏ cojjx ;;2 ²I fa{ ?2 ehcph|g ojj hc|d{vdchc` |derd{o|t{d{oery kdhc` o| ;4 ²I ehc ∛ ? # Hclhvhltoj ed|gxj dy|d{y pd{d hldc|h ﬏ dlkxiaero{hyac|amcapcy|oclo{lyoclkx{dfd{dcid|artkjhygdllo|oOimeoc* ?872(# Lo|o pd{d iajjdi|dl ocl r{aidyydl tyhc` |gd\a|ojig{ae yaf|po{d vd{# 6#;* Rd{mhc Djed{(#  ;#<# Iojitjo|hacy Ftj|acy iaclh|hac foi|a{ IF( poy iojitjo|dl oy>IF º KP ` ò ÓÉ FJ  ∛ 9 ie ò Ó   É ?22pgd{d KP5kalx pdh`g|* FJ5fa{m jdc`|g#Fddliacvd{yhac{o|haFI[(poyiojitjo|dlf{ae|gdoeatc|aflhd|iacytedl m` l{x eo||d{( ocl |gd |a|oj khaeoyy m`( `ohcdl>FI[  º m` lhd| iacytedl ò ÓÉò m` fhcoj khaeoyy ∛ m` hch|hoj khaeoyy ó m` yoerjdl fhyg ó ea{|ojh|hdy Ó ∛ ? Yrdih ﬏ i`{ap|g{o|dY@[(poyiojitjo|dloy$lohjx`{ap|ghci{doydY@[  º jcKP ; ∛ jcKP ? É loxy af dwrd{hedc| ∛ ? Â Ï É ?22Pgd{dKP ? oclKP ; {dr{dydc||gdhch|hojocl ﬏ cojkalxpdh`g|yhc`* {dyrdi|hvdjx#R{a|dhcdf  ﬏ ihdcix{o|ha RD[( poy iojitjo|dloy pdh`g| `ohcm`( fa{doig m` r{a|dhc iacytedlRD[  º KP ; ∛ KP ? ò ÓÉ r{a|dhc fdl ∛ ?   Pgd{dKP ? oclKP ; {dr{dydc||gdhch|hojocl ﬏ cojkalxpdh`g|yhc`* {dyrdi|hvdjx#Jhrhl df  ﬏ ihdcix {o|ha JD[( poy iojitjo|dl oy pdh`g| `ohc m`( fa{doig m` jhrhl iacytedlJD[  º KP ; ∛ KP ? ò ÓÉ jhrhl fdl ∛ ?   R{a|dhc r{alti|hvd vojtd RRV( poy iojitjo|dl oy {d|ohcdl r{a|dhcm`( hc pgajd ﬏ yg af iacytedl r{a|dhc m`( RRV  º fhcoj r{a|dhc iac|dc| ∛ hch|hoj r{a|dhc iac|dc| ò ÓÉ r{a|dhc iacytedl ∛ ?   Jhmdphyd |gd dcd{`x r{alti|hvd vojtd DRV( poy iojitjo|dl DRV  º fhcoj dcd{`x iac|dc| ∛ hch|hoj dcd{`x iac|dc| ò ÓÉ dcd{`x iacytedl ∛ ?   JRV  º fhcoj jhrhl iac|dc| ∛ hch|hoj jhrhl iac|dc| ò ÓÉ jhrhl iacytedl ∛ ?   Orro{dc| lh`dy|hkhjh|x OLI( poy iojitjo|dl oy |gd {o|ha kd|pddc|gd hcd{| eo{md{* x||{hte ocl |gd ct|{hdc| ph|ghc lhd| ocl fodidyiojitjo|dl koydl ac pd| pdh`g|#OLI º ò ? ∛ fddl eo{md{ iac|dc| É fodioj ct|{hdc| iac|dc| Â Ï Ëò fddl ct|{hdc| iac|dc| É fodioj eo{md{ iac|dc| Ó ∛ ? ÓÉ ?22Fhyg edoj r{a|dhc t|hjhyo|hac FE RRV( f{ae Ntcd ;226 |a Fdk{to{x;220>FE RRV  º òò fhcoj r{a|dhc iac|dc| hc pgajd fhyg ∛ hch|hoj r{a|dhc iac|dc| hc pgajd fhyg ÓË r{a|dhc iacytedl f{ae fhyg Ó ?84 K#D# \a{y|dcydc d| oj# ! Oqtoitj|t{d ;74 ';227( ?89 ’  ;22  Iojitjo|hacy pd{d koydl ac |gd fajjaphc` r{a|dhc iac|dc| af |gdlhffd{dc|r{a|dhcyat{idy> ﬏ ygedoj*022`m` ∛ ? =pgdo|`jt|dc*422`m` ∛ ? =ia{c `jt|dc* 642 ` m` ∛ ? = yax r{a|dhc iacidc|{o|d* 422 ` m` ∛ ? = m{hjj edoj*642 ` m` ∛ ? #  ;#4# Y|o|hy|hiy Ojj y|o|hy|hiy pd{d rd{fa{edl tyhc` |gd r{a`{oe Y|o|hy|hio Y|o|yaf|Hci#* \tjyo* TYO(# \a oiiatc| fa{ |gd vo{hocid oeac` dwrd{hedc|oj  \okjd 9 Fo||x oihl iaerayh|hac o{do $* p#p#( af |gd dwrd{hedc|oj lhd|y o| |pa lhffd{dc| rdjjd| yh~dy< ee lhd|y 6 ee lhd|yFEFA 72RR94VA <2RR02VA 72RR02VA FEFA 72RR94VA <2RR02VA 72RR02VA?<>2 <#4 ;#7 ?#7 ?#0 6#< 4#2 ;#6 ;#7?4>2 2#4 2#9 2#; 2#; 2#6 2#< 2#; 2#;?6>2 ?<#2 ?4#? ?6#0 ?6#4 ?4#; ?4#2 ?6#9 ?6#??0>2 2#0 2#< 2#; 2#; 2#< 2#9 2#; 2#;?7>2 ;#2 ;#? ;#6 ;#4 ;#4 ;#< ;#7 ;#6;2>2 2#; 2#9 2#< 2#< 2#; 2#9 2#< 2#<;;>2 2#2 2#? 2#; 2#; 2#2 2#? 2#; 2#<Yte yo|t{o|dl ;?#0 ;?#9 ;;#? ;?#7 ;4#< ;9#4 ;;#7 ;;#7?6>? c ∛ 0 4#9 9#? ?#7 ?#7 <#0 <#? ?#8 ;#??6>? c ∛ 8 2#< 2#; 2#? 2#? 2#< 2#9 2#; 2#;?7>? c ∛ 0 9#; ;#7 ;#4 ;#4 ;#2 ;#; ;#< ;#9?7>? c ∛ 8 ??#2 ;<#4 99#6 9<#8 8#4 ?0#6 92#2 ;7#8?7>? c ∛ ?? 2#4 2#9 2#2 2#? 2#; 2#; 2#2 2#;;2>? c ∛ 0 2#< 2#9 2#? 2#? 2#9 2#; 2#? 2#?;2>? c ∛ 8 8#0 6#6 9#9 9#4 6#0 4#9 9#2 9#9;2>? c ∛ ?? ?#6 ?#? 2#4 2#4 2#4 2#< 2#; 2#;;;>? c ∛ 8 ?#8 ?#9 2#0 2#7 2#8 ?#? ?#9 ?#9;;>? c ∛ ?? ??#7 0#7 9#9 9#6 ?2#< 0#0 9#4 <#?;<>? c ∛ 8 ?#? 2#6 2#9 2#< ?#? 2#7 2#4 2#4Yte eacadcdy <0#2 <7#0 <6#9 <7#< 96#0 98#7 <9#9 <9#9?7>; c ∛ 6 ?#6 7#8 ?9#0 ?9#< ;#9 0#4 ?;#7 ?;#0;2>; c ∛ 6 2#9 2#; 2#2 2#2 2#9 2#; 2#? 2#?;2>9 c ∛ 6 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2;2>< c ∛ 6 2#6 2#9 2#; 2#? 2#8 2#4 2#9 2#9Yte c ∛ 6 ;#4 8#9 ?9#8 ?9#4 9#< 7#; ?9#9 ?9#??6>< c ∛ 9 2#< 2#? 2#; 2#2 2#0 2#4 2#9 2#;?7>9 c ∛ 9 2#7 4#0 8#? 8#0 ?#< 4#9 8#< 8#9?7>< c ∛ 9 ;#; ?#9 2#0 2#6 9#4 ;#6 ?#; ?#9;2>9 c ∛ 9 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2 2#2;2>< c ∛ 9 2#6 2#< 2#; 2#; 2#0 2#4 2#; 2#9;2>4 c ∛ 9 7#6 <#7 ;#8 ;#4 8#7 0#4 9#4 9#8;;>4 c ∛ 9 ?#2 2#4 2#9 2#9 ?#; 2#7 2#< 2#<;;>6 c ∛ 9 ??#< 6#? 9#7 9#2 ?9#2 7#4 4#2 <#0Yte c ∛ 9 ;4#; ?7#7 ?0#? ?6#9 92#4 ;6#2 ?8#8 ;2#9 c ∛ 9! c ∛ 6 8#8 ;#2 ?#; ?#; 7#8 9#; ?#4 ?#6Okk{dvho|hacy af lhd|o{x `{atry o{d `hvdc hc\okjd ?#  \okjd ; Oehca oihl iaerayh|hac `!?6`C( hc |gd dwrd{hedc|oj lhd|y o| |pa rdjjd| yh~dyRdjjd| yh~d < ee 6 eeIaerayh|hac FEFA 72RR94VA <2RR02VA 72RR02VA FEFA 72RR94VA <2RR02VA 72RR02VA  OO yOjo 4#0 <#7 4#< <#0 4#< <#8 4#0 <#7O{` ⁃ 4#< <#0 <#8 <#0 4#6 <#8 4#? <#7Oyr 7#; 6#8 0#9 6#7 7#9 6#7 0#; 6#8@jt ?;#6 ;?#0 ?8#; ;?#9 ?;#4 ;?#< ?7#9 ;?#<@jx 4#4 9#0 <#< 9#6 4#< 9#6 <#< 9#0Ghy ⁃ ;#? ?#4 ?#7 ?#0 9#< ?#4 ;#; ?#0AG%r{a 2#0 2#; 2#< 2#; ?#2 2#; 2#< 2#;Hjd ⁃ 9#7 9#6 <#2 9#4 9#6 <#2 9#7 9#0Jdt ⁃ 0#< 8#? 7#8 8#2 6#8 8#? 8#< 8#?Jxy ⁃ 0#; 4#8 6#; 6#2 6#7 4#9 4#0 4#<Ed| ⁃ ;#8 ;#; ;#9 ;#< ;#6 ;#6 9#; ;#4Rgd ⁃ <#2 <#7 <#0 <#0 9#0 4#2 <#7 <#8R{a <#? 0#< 6#0 0#9 <#; 0#8 0#2 0#0Yd{ 9#7 <#0 <#< <#0 9#8 <#4 <#< <#6\ot 2#8 2#; 2#< 2#; 2#8 2#; 2#4 2#9\g{ ⁃ 9#0 9#2 9#9 9#2 9#8 9#9 9#0 9#9\x{ 9#; 9#0 9#0 9#0 9#? 9#8 <#2 9#8Voj ⁃ <#6 <#? <#< <#2 <#4 <#< <#0 <#9\{r ⁃ ?#? 2#8 2#8 2#8 ?#? 2#8 2#8 2#8Ixy ?#2 ?#< ?#< ?#< ?#? ?#< ?#< ?#6HOO!LOO 2#8; 2#09 2#07 2#0< 2#8; 2#04 2#7; 2#0<Cac OO%C ?;#? 4#4 4#9 6#; ?;#? <#; 9#; <#9Okk{dvho|hacy af lhd|o{x `{atry o{d `hvdc hc\okjd ?#Oehca oihly OOy( fajjapdl kx oc oy|d{hym o{d iacyhld{dl hclhyrdcyokjd fa{ O|joc|hi yojeac# Cac OO%C hy |gd rd{idc|o`d ca| kdhc` oiiatc|dl fa{ oy OOy ocojxydl#?86 K#D# \a{y|dcydc d| oj# ! Oqtoitj|t{d ;74 ';227( ?89 ’  ;22
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