Cockroaches Are Part of the Order DICTYOPTERA and of the Sub

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Cockroaches are part of the order DICTYOPTERA and of the sub-order BLATTODEA. They are rather flat insects with quite long antennae and also long spiky legs, boy!! can they move. Most of them have wings but can only fly when temperatures are quite high. Generally speaking, cockroaches are omnivorous, in other words they will eat anything, including each other if there is no other food source available. Cockroaches are regarded as a primitive insects and fossil species from the Carboniferous peri
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  Cockroaches are part of the order DICTYOPTERA and of the sub-order BLATTODEA. They are rather flat insects with quite long antennae andalso long spiky legs, boy!! can they move. Most of them have wings but canonly fly when temperatures are quite high. Generally speaking, cockroachesare omnivorous, in other words they will eat anything, including each other if there is no other food source available.Cockroaches are regarded as a primitive insects and fossil species from theCarboniferous period, that's about 250 million years ago, are very like thoseknown today. There are about 3,500 different species of cockroach with thevast majority living in the open and almost never coming into contact withman. The majority of cockroaches are tropical with only a few small speciesnative to our wonderful climate, but those tropical ones which have foundtheir way here, in the last 200 hundred years, are pretty much dependantupon our heated buildings, especially hospitals, laundries and kitchenswhere conditions are hot and steamy.Cockroaches are very gregarious, like to party and boogey on down, yeahman..!!, and they emit an aggregation pheromone, in other words a gatheringtogether smell, which is why you see lots of them together when there is a problem. On this page I am only going to cover the four main species whichgive us problems in the U.K.  DISTRIBUTION:  Cockroaches are common in commercial premises associated with the production or handling of food. Also in public buildings and domestic premises eg blocks of flats. Gregarious and nocturnal, they spend the dayhiding in cracks and crevices around such areas as sinks, drains, cookers, the backs of cupboards and in refrigerator motor compartments. They especiallyfavour buildings with service ducts and complex plumbing installations.Infestations may be introduced as egg cases or adults in incoming laundry,on raw materials, in crates and packaging, or arise as the insects enter  buildings via such routes as drains or refuse chutes.  SIGNIFICANCE:  Cockroaches are potential vectors of diseases such as dysentery,gastroenteritis, typhoid and poliomyelitis. Their diet is omnivorous andincludes fermenting substances, soiled septic dressings, hair, leather, parchment, wallpaper, faeces and food for human consumption. The latter may be contaminated either by the mechanical transfer of causative agentsof disease from the insect’s body, or by transmission in the faeces. Anoutbreak of food poisoning in a Brussels hospital subsided immediately aninfestation of B. germanica was controlled.  Cockroaches and their faeces may cause allergic reactions especiallyamongst sensitive individuals eg asthmatics. Exposure may result fromingestion or through the inhalation of materials derived from cockroaches inairborne dust. In addition, food may be tainted with the characteristic smellof the cockroach, which is produced by faeces and salivary/abdominal glandsecretions, or by the dead insects. Structure of Insecta Respiratory System.Eg.cockroach The blood of cockroach is not responsible for the transportation of gases, itserves as a stationary medium for exchange of gases.A complicated systemof numerous, shiny, transparent and branched air tubes or tracheae are foundfor gaseous exchange in the haemocoel cavity.There are 6 longitudinal tracheal tubes -2 dorsal, 2 ventral and 2 lateral whichare interconnected by transverse commissures. Chitinous rings preventcollapse of trachea.Atmospheric air enters into and escapes out from this system through tenpairs of slit-like apertures called stigmata or spiracles located on lateral sidesof the body.Two pairs of these are thoracic and eight pairs are abdominal.Thoracicspiracles are some what larger. One pair of these in between prothorax andthe other between mesothorax and metathorax upon respective pleurites.The first pair of abdominal spiracle are dorsolateral upon tergite of firstabdominal segment, but the remaining seven pairs are upon the pleurites of second to eight segments.Each spiracle is surrounded by a ring-like scleritecalled peritreme.
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